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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies. Descending order according to study type and study period

From: A systematic literature review of reported challenges in health care delivery to migrants and refugees in high-income countries - the 3C model

Study period Country
code
N participants Details and focus of the study C1 C2 C3 Other topics First author & Reference
Cross-sectional studies
 2012–2015 US 363 Acceptance of mental health services in relation to age, gender, and country of origin 0 1 0 Ballard-Kang [13]
 2013–2014 US 40 Refugees’ satisfaction with home health services visits 0 1 0 Home visits Miner [14]
 2008–2014 IT 151,311 Access to preventive health in national health surveys of Belgium, Italy, Malta, Portugal and Spain 0 0 0 Context Rosano [15]
 2001–2013 US 370 Analysis on initiation of antenatal care for migrant women who gave birth 1 1 1 Initiation visits Kentoffio [16]
 2008 US 810 Use of preventive medicine by Somali patients at US health facility 1 1 1 Morrison [17]
 2005 UK 1611 Questionnaire survey of patients at an accident and emergency centre in London 1 1 0 Hargreaves [18]
 2004 NL 580 Mental health service uptake of Turkish/Moroccan migrants and Dutch in NL 1 0 1 Fassaert [19]
 2002 US 304 Impact of health counselling and health services on functional health outcomes of Sudanese youth arrived by Unaccompanied Refugee Minors Program 1 1 0 Geltman [20]
 2001–2002 AU 199 East African children attending an immigrant health clinic for the first time 1 1 1 Cooke [21]
 ns US 70 Trauma related psychiatric symptoms in Bosnian refugees 0 0 1 Weine [22]
 2011 CA 113 Language barriers in mental health; practitioners self-report survey in Montreal 1 1 1 Brisset [23]
 2011 CA 41 Primary care practitioners performing modified Delphi consensus process on innovative strategies improving primary health care delivery to vulnerable populations 1 1 1 Pottie [24]
Qualitative studies
 2015–2016 CA 6 Interviews with health care providers about telemedicine for migrant health care delivery 1 1 1 Telemedicine Sandre [25]
 2012–2013 AU 64 Interviews/focus groups with Afghan parents who had recently had a child and health professionals on quality of care 1 1 1 Time, legal status Yelland [26] [27]
 2012–2013 AU 16 Evaluation of Australian mental health services from the perspective of young people with refugee background 1 1 1 Valibhoi [28]
 2012 US 39 Focus groups with refugees from Iraq, Eritrea, Somalia, Bhutan on US health care 1 1 1 Context Worabo [29]
 2012 US & MX 33 Interviews on sexual health with indigenous women and nurses in migrant-sending and migrant-receiving communities 1 1 1 Gender Espinoza [30]
 2012 AU 87 Focus groups with mothers from refugee and migrant backgrounds on maternal and child health services 1 1 1 Riggs [31]
 2010–2011 AU 115 Focus groups and key informant interviews with service providers experienced in young refugee’s mental health in Melbourne 1 1 1 Colucci [32]``
 2010–2011 CA 15 Interviews with young mental health patients, caregivers and clinicians on quality of care 1 1 1 Collaboration Nadeau [33]
 2009–2010 UK 16 Interviews with NGO workers at HIV clinic on access to health services 0 1 0 Whyte [34]
 2010 US & MX 15 Interviews with female patients and key informants in Mexico and California on access to and quality of sexual and reproductive health services 1 1 1 Context, gender Deeb-Sossa [35]
 2008–2009 UK 40 Interviews with adolescent refugees investigating school as convenient location for mental health services 0 1 1 Stigma, Collaboration Fazel [36]
 2005–2008 CA 47 Focus groups with Immigrants, refugees, non-status patients living with HIV/AIDS 1 1 1 Social events Chen [37]
 2005–2006 AU 34 Chinese mental health patients and providers on barriers to mental health care 1 0 1 Blignault [38]
 2004–2006 AU 38 Focus groups and interviews with informants, providing health services to Afghans 1 0 1 Omeri [39]
 ns US 28 Interviews with Slavic emigres and key informants on chronic health conditions 1 1 1 Context Van Son [40]
 ns UK 6 Interviews with Kurdish interpreters in UK 1 0 0 Green [41]
 ns US 20 Interviews with migrant farmworkers on health beliefs regarding their children 1 1 1 Context Newton [42]
Good practice reports
 2017 AU na Characteristics to be collected in medical records to improve health care for migrants 1 0 0 Data collection Yelland [43]
 1987–2016 AU na Individualized mental health clinic 1 1 1 Holistic approach Kaplan [44]
 2010 AU na Narrative medicine in refugee mental health 1 1 1 Benson [45]
Expert opinions
 2016 CA na Description of migrant health care delivery in Canada 1 1 1 Context Rahman [46]
 2009 IT na Expert analysis of reason for results of Swedish cohort study on psychotropic substance use 0 1 1 Nose [47]
 2002 AU na Problems refugees face in accessing effective health care; ways in which health services can respond 1 1 1 Lamb [48]
TOTAL 29 28 28   
  1. AIDS: acquired immune deficiency syndrome; C1: Communication; C2: Continuity of Care; C3: Confidence; HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus; na; not applicable; N: number
  2. NGO: Non-governmental organisation