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Table 1 Baseline data

From: Design of a parallel cluster-randomized trial assessing the impact of a demand-side sanitation and hygiene intervention on sustained behavior change and mental well-being in rural and peri-urban Amhara, Ethiopia: Andilaye study protocol

Indicator Overall Intervention Control
Demographic information N % N % N %
 Respondent was female 1589 90.7 793 91.3 796 90.1
 Respondent was mother of index child 1589 84.6 793 85.4 796 83.9
 Primary caregiver/mother has at least secondary education 1589 12.8 793 11.9 796 13.8
 Primary caregiver/mother is married 1587 89.3 792 91.2 795 87.4
 Head of household has at least some secondary education 1579 16.7 791 15.2 788 18.2
Demographic information N mean (SE) N mean (SE) N mean (SE)
 Respondent’s age 1589 33.5 (0.38) 793 33.7 (0.52) 796 33.3 (0.55)
 Head of household age 1589 41.3 (0.46) 793 41.6 (0.54) 796 41.1 (0.73)
 Number of household members 1589 5.3 (0.08) 793 5.3 (0.10) 796 5.3 (0.12)
Household latrine coverage N % N % N %
 Households with access to at least one household latrine 1589 65.5 793 64.1 796 66.8
 Households with access to an improved household latrine a 1553 39.8 775 39.9 778 39.7
 Households with access to a fully constructed household latrine 1583 30.7 792 29.6 791 31.9
Household latrine operation and maintenance N % N % N %
 Household has added or improved anything on the latrine since its original construction 1028 12.9 504 11.9 524 13.9
Household latrine characteristics N % N % N %
 Presence of drop hole cover in the latrine 1033 13.4 505 12.5 528 14.2
 Among those with a drop hole, a cover was situated over drop hole 138 66.7 63 65.1 75 68.0
Defecation practices N % N % N %
 Respondent’s primary place of defecation was in the open during last 2 days 1589 37.5 793 39.5 796 35.6
 Respondent defecated in any latrine during last 2 days 1589 45.6 793 46.0 796 45.1
 Child feces were safely disposed of during the last 2 days 961 40.2 463 38.9 498 41.4
Sharing of household latrine facilities N mean (SE) N mean (SE) N mean (SE)
 Given household has a household latrine, number of people from another household who used this latrine during last 7 days, exclusive of household members 1037 0.94 (0.12) 506 1.08 (0.18) 530 0.79 (0.14)
Animal husbandry / other household sanitation practices N % N % N %
 Animal feces/waste not left out in open in compound 1589 44.1 793 42.0 796 46.2
Facial cleanliness among children aged 1–9 years N % N % N %
 Ocular discharge present 1944 40.3 932 42.2 1012 38.6
 Wet nasal discharge present 1944 47.3 932 47.6 1012 46.9
 Dry nasal discharge present 1944 65.4 932 64.7 1012 66.1
 Dirt/dust/other debris present 1944 69.9 932 68.7 1012 71.0
  N mean (SE) N mean (SE) N mean (SE)
 Number of times a fly land on the index child’s face during a 1 min observation 1382 4.2 (0.23) 669 4.1 (0.34) 713 4.3 (0.32)
Household washing station coverage N % N % N %
 Household hand or facewashing station(s) 1589 78.9 793 77.1 796 78.8
Handwashing practices N % N % N %
 The last time the respondent washed, s/he used soap/ash/soapy water 1588 36.4 793 35.1 795 37.7
 The last time the respondent defecated, s/he cleaned hands with water and soap, substitute 1585 37.2 791 36.3 794 38.0
 The last time the respondent prepared food, s/he cleaned hands with water and soap, substitute before beginning food preparations 1586 39.7 791 41.0 795 38.5
Diarrhea among index children N % N % N %
 During the last 2 days, including today, index child had three or more loose stools per day 1577 6.3 782 5.6 795 6.9
 During the last 7 days, including today, index child had three or more loose stools per day 1575 9.1 778 8.1 797 10.0
Anxiety and depression N %
Mean (SD)
N %
Mean (SD)
N %
Mean (SD)
 Anxiety b 1584 29.7
1.56 (0.62)
790 29.6
1.56 (0.60)
794 29.7
1.56 (0.63)
 Depression b 1588 20.8
1.46 (0.52)
793 21.3
1.45 (0.51)
795 20.4
1.46 (0.52)
 Emotional distress b 1583 17.3
1.38 (0.48)
790 17.2
1.38 (0.47)
793 17.4
1.38 (0.48)
WHO-5 well-being N %
Mean (SD)
N %
Mean (SD)
N %
Mean (SD)
 Poor well-being c 1586 33.2
16.0 (7.0)
792 31.1
15.6 (7.1)
794 35.3
16.3 (6.8)
  1. a "Improved" based on the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) for Water Supply and Sanitation definition. b We asked respondents to indicate how much the symptoms bothered them in the previous week with four potential response options (not at all [1] to extremely [4]). The first ten symptoms assess anxiety (i.e., ‘suddenly scared for no reason’, ‘nervousness or shakiness inside’), the next 13 assess depression (i.e., ‘feeling low in energy’, ‘feeling hopeless about the future’), and the 23 collectively assess non-specific emotional distress. For each outcome, the score is the sum of the responses divided by the number of items. Each of these scores was dichotomized, with scores greater than 1.75 indicating a positive status for any of the three outcomes. c We asked respondents about well-being, and responses ranged from ‘(0) At no time’ to (5) All of the time’. Scores were summed, and range from 0 to 25; the higher the score, the better the well-being. Each of these scores was dichotomized with scores below 13 indicating poor well-being