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Table 2 Statistic parameter and ANOVA tests of mean personal exposure for different groups

From: Assessment of personal exposure to particulate air pollution: the first result of City Health Outlook (CHO) project

  Mean ± STD (μg/m3)
PM2.5 PM10 PM1
SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC
Gender    *
 Female 35.85 ± 56.28 41.25 ± 60.81 18.36 ± 29.07
 Male 40.38 ± 55.45 46.73 ± 61.65 20.80 ± 25.70
Age *** *** ***
 ≤30 38.55 ± 59.36 44.41 ± 64.42 19.72 ± 29.65
 > 30 37.65 ± 49.80 43.60 ± 55.94 19.48 ± 23.33
Education *** *** ***
 Bachelor’s degree or below 44.40 ± 66.40 51.12 ± 71.86 22.67 ± 32.76
 Post-graduate degree 31.64 ± 40.96 36.65 ± 46.47 16.40 ± 19.70
Marital status    
 Single 38.93 ± 58.76 44.65 ± 63.72 19.94 ± 29.07
 Married 36.98 ± 50.57 43.16 ± 56.92 19.10 ± 24.26
Annual income, RMB *** *** ***
 Low-middle: <  150,000 43.64 ± 67.20 49.52 ± 71.36 22.58 ± 34.39
 Middle-high class: >  150,000 35.46 ± 48.97 41.36 ± 55.34 18.14 ± 22.93
TRAVEL BEHAVIOR
Commute time to work, hours *** *** **
 ≤ 1 36.58 ± 55.20 42.08 ± 60.14 18.96 ± 28.28
 > 1 41.14 ± 57.01 47.73 ± 63.19 20.83 ± 25.69
Own vehicle *** *** ***
 yes 33.34 ± 48.20 38.66 ± 54.79 16.77 ± 22.67
 no 40.30 ± 58.78 46.44 ± 63.77 20.86 ± 29.11
LIVING CONDITION
Days suffered from passive smoking for more than 15 mins per week ** *** *
 0 37.06 ± 58.60 42.56 ± 63.38 19.11 ± 29.37
 > 1 40.25 ± 50.65 46.83 ± 57.34 20.56 ± 23.45
Have ventilation system at home or office *** *** ***
 yes 35.58 ± 57.05 40.80 ± 61.51 18.37 ± 30.03
 no 40.47 ± 54.78 46.94 ± 60.99 20.71 ± 24.87
HEALTH STATUS
Body mass index, kg/m2 *** *** ***
 Normal (< 25) 35.40 ± 53.69 40.91 ± 58.87 18.16 ± 27.08
 Overweight / Obese(≥25) 46.37 ± 61.14 53.38 ± 67.03 23.91 ± 27.86
Respiratory diseases * ** *
 yes 34.51 ± 46.60 39.67 ± 52.03 17.77 ± 21.18
 no 38.21 ± 55.50 44.21 ± 61.03 19.67 ± 27.73
  1. Note: * denotes significance level < 0.05; **significance level < 0.01; ***significance level < 0.001. The highest personal exposure concentration in each group was shaded in grey