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Table 2 Description of elements of systems for CDP

From: Strengthening complex systems for chronic disease prevention: a systematic review

Key elements


Diverse entities and multiple sectors

Governments and their departments (e.g., health, agriculture, transportation, trade, education, planning), civil society, philanthropic organisations, international agencies, private sector, and entities focused on research, policy, and practice [27,28,29,30,31,32,33].

Multiple levels

Global/international [34,35,36,37,38,39], federal, national, state/provincial or regional, and municipal or local [14, 40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47,48,49,50] through to community and individuals [51].

Unique and ever changing contexts

History, geography, values, social interactions and structures, political and legal systems, economic situations, existing resources, policies and initiatives, features of entities or organizations, and physical environments [46, 52, 53].

Dynamic relationships or interactions

Structures and processes that link people, entities and actions to prevent chronic disease [15, 19, 54, 55]