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Table 4 Adjusted associations of secondhand smoke exposure with psychological symptoms obtained from proportional odds model in the SCHEDULE study in China

From: The association between exposure to secondhand smoke and psychological symptoms among Chinese children

  Secondhand smoke exposure
None < 1 h/daily 1–2 h/daily ≥3 h/daily
Reference pOR (95% CI) pOR (95% CI) pOR (95% CI)
Model 1
 Total SDQ score 1 1.63 (1.47 to 1.81) 2.30 (2.00 to 2.65) 2.46 (2.08 to 2.92)
 Emotional symptoms 1 1.41 (1.25 to 1.59) 1.94 (1.65 to 2.28) 1.75 (1.43 to 2.13)
 Conduct problems 1 1.40 (1.26 to 1.57) 1.88 (1.63 to 2.19) 1.90 (1.59 to 2.28)
 Hyperactivity-inattention 1 1.38 (1.26 to 1.52) 1.87 (1.64 to 2.13) 2.08 (1.77 to 2.44)
 Peer relationship problems 1 1.45 (1.36 to 1.59) 1.73 (1.54 to 1.94) 1.53 (1.33 to 1.77)
 Prosocial behaviors 1 1.28 (1.15 to 1.43) 1.48 (1.26 to 1.73) 1.31 (1.07 to 1.59)
Model 2
 Total SDQ score 1 1.47 (1.28 to 1.70) 1.98 (1.63 to 2.40) 2.28 (1.81 to 2.87)
 Emotional symptoms 1 1.29 (1.10 to 1.53) 1.84 (1.48 to 2.28) 1.63 (1.24 to 2.14)
 Conduct problems 1 1.40 (1.26 to 1.57) 1.88 (1.63 to 2.19) 1.90 (1.59 to 2.28)
 Hyperactivity-inattention 1 1.20 (1.06 to 1.37) 1.52 (1.28 to 1.81) 1.99 (1.61 to 2.47)
 Peer relationship problems 1 1.31 (1.17 to 1.46) 1.44 (1.23 to 1.69) 1.52 (1.25 to 1.85)
 Prosocial behaviors 1 1.22 (1.05 to 1.42) 1.42 (1.15 to 1.76) 1.35 (1.03 to 1.77)
  1. Model 1 adjusted for sex, age at measurement;
  2. Model 2 additionally adjusted for parents’ education, household income, mode of birth, place of birth and BMI z-score (relative to the 2007 World Health Organization growth reference)