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Table 2 Sample Demographics/Baseline Characteristics

From: “It’s a hard thing to manage when you’re homeless”: the impact of the social environment on smoking cessation for smokers experiencing homelessness

  Mean ± SD (range) or n (%)
N 40
Study randomization arm  
 A: Standard Care 15 (37.5%)
 B: Intensive Smoking Intervention 13 (32.5%)
 C: Intensive Smoking and Alcohol Intervention 12 (30.0%)
Age 50.20 ± 9.2 (29.6–69.5)
Sex  
 Male 29 (72.5%)
 Female 11 (27.5%)
Cigarettes smoked per day (on eligibility survey)a 14.6 ± 8.3 (2.5–40)
Housing situation (at eligibility survey)  
 Emergency or overnight shelter 23 (57.5%)
 Campsite, vehicle, abandoned building/house, parking garage, or on the street 7 (17.5%)
 Transitional or supportive housing, long-term shelter 5 (12.5%)
 Staying with relative, friend, or other people/double-up – less than 3 months at the same place 5 (12.5%)
Housing stability (self-rating from 0-not at all stable to 10-extremely stable) 3.53 ± 3.48 (0–10)
Race  
 African American or Black 32 (80.0%)
 Native American/Alaskan Native 1 (2.50%)
 White 6 (15.0%)
 More than 1 race 1 (2.5%)
Education
 Some high school or less 12 (30.0%)
 High school graduate or GED 14 (35.0%)
 Some college or technical school 13 (32.5%)
 Unknown/not reported 1 (2.5%)
Employment
 Employed full time 2 (5.0%)
 Employed part time 4 (10.0%)
 Out of work for more than 1 year 8 (20.0%)
 Out of work for less than 1 year 7 (17.5%)
 Unable to work or disabled 19 (47.5%)
Income
 Less than $400 per month 17 (42.5%)
 $400–$799 per month 15 (37.5%)
 $800–$1199 per month 6 (15.0%)
 $1200–$1799 per month 2 (5.0%)
Number of children 2.73 ± 2.21 (0–10)
MINI Psychotic Symptoms Score at Baseline 0.58 ± 1.11 (0–4)
Marijuana use ≥20 days in prior 30 days (n, % yes) 3 (7.5%)
Rost-Burnam Screener for Drug Abuse (n, % yes) 37 (92.5%)
Depressive Symptoms (PHQ-9) 7.38 ± 6.36 (0–23)
Perceived Stress (PSS-4) 6.35 ± 3.05 (1–13)
Anxiety (MINI) 2.13 ± 2.95 (0–9)
FTND Minutes to 1st Cigarette
 0–5 min 13 (32.5%)
 6–15 min 8 (20.0%)
 16–30 min 9 (22.5%)
 31–60 min 6 (15.0%)
 61+ minutes 4 (10.0%)
Alcohol-Use Severity (AUDIT-10 in Eligibility Survey) 14.93 ± 4.87 (7–24)
  1. an = 4 participants smoked < 5 CPD in the 7 days prior to the eligibility survey, but had missing data for their avg. CPD. For these participants, 2.5 CPD was assumed