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Table 2 Summary of the characteristics and main findings of studies addressing NCDs among Syrian refugees (n = 19)a, b

From: Burden of non-communicable diseases among Syrian refugees: a scoping review

Title Brief description Findings: Prevalence of NCDs among SR Findings Healthcare needs of SR in relation to NCDs
The Provision of Health Services in Jordan to Syrian Refugees
Al-Fahoum et al. [29]
Cross-sectional survey of adult SR (n = 120), camp setting in Jordan HT: 41% in men and 30% among women 46% reported receiving ‘bad’ healthcare (54% men and 42% women) and 75% reporting insufficient healthcare
Prevalence and care-seeking for chronic diseases among Syrian refugees in Jordan Doocy et al. [30] Cross-sectional survey of adults SR (n = 1550 HH), in non-camp setting in Jordan One in two HH reported NCD (50.3%). HT (10.7%), arthritis (7.1%), DM (6.1%), CVD (4.1%) and COPD (2.9%) Among cases who did not seek healthcare, barriers cited were: cost, not knowing where to go, could not afford transportation and no trust in the provider of care
Health service access and utilization among Syrian refugees in Jordan
Doocy et al. [31]
Cross-sectional survey of adult SR (n = 1550 HH, 9580 subjects) outside camps in Jordan N/A 86.1% of HH reported an adult sought medical care the last time it was needed. 51.5% of services were sought from public sector, 38.7% private, and 9.8% in charity/NGO facilities. 51.8% of HH reported out-of pocket expenditures for medical care.
Chronic Diseases, Lack of Medications, and Depression Among Syrian Refugees in Jordan, 2013–2014
Gammoush et al. [32]
Cross-sectional survey of adult SR (n = 765) (> 18 yrs) attending Caritas in 6 cities [self-reported], living in urban areas in Jordan N/A 71.9% reported not having enough medications
Health Service Utilization among Syrian Refugees with Chronic Health Conditions in Jordan
Doocy et al. [33]
Cross-sectional survey of adults SR (n = 1550 HH) in non-camp setting in Jordan Prevalence of NCD (21.1%) [reasons for needing healthcare] 51.5% sought care from public sector, 38.7% private, 9.8 NGO/charity. Cost was a main barrier for not seeking care
Among those who sought healthcare, 50% reported an out of pocket payment for healthcare
Do Chronic Diseases and Availability of Medications Predict Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among Syrian refugees in Jordan?
Al-Samdi et al. [34]
Cross-sectional survey of adults SR (n = 765) (> 18 yrs) attending Caritas health centers in 6 cities in Jordan N/A 71.9% did not receive sufficient medication
The Perceived Barriers of Health Care Among a Group of Non-camp Syrian Refugees in Jordan
Ay et al. [35]
Cross-sectional survey of SR (n = 196), all age groups in non-camp setting Jordan N/A 40.4% used PHC, 33.7% public governments, 14.6% private and 4.5 NGOs. Barriers: most frequent is cost followed by structural. Of cost, the cost of transportation was most frequent.63.6% reported an out-of-pocket expenditure for medical service.
Health status and health needs of older refugees from Syria in Lebanon
Strong et al. [36]
Cross-sectional survey of older adults SR (n = 167) (> 60 yrs) attending Caritas clinics in 5 cities in Lebanon HT (53%), DM (38%), CVD (28), high cholesterol (22%), lung disease (11%). Cost was the main carrier to healthcare (87%).
Prevalence, care-seeking, and health service utilization for non-communicable diseases among Syrian refugees and host communities in Lebanon
Doocy et al. [37]
Cross-sectional survey of SR (n = 2062 HH), all ages in camps and outside camps and Host community in Lebanon Over half (50.4%) of refugee and HC (60.2%) reported a member with NCD. Among adults: SR (HT: 7.4%, COPD: 3.8%; CVD 3.3% and DM: 3.3%). HC (HT: 10.7%, DM 6.3%, CVD 5.3%, COPD: 2.6%) Refugees utilized (PHCC) (57.7%) most often while HC most in private clinics (62.4%). Overall, 69.7% of refugees and 82.7% of HC members reported an out-o f pocket consultation payment.
Pilot Testing and Implementation of a mHealth tool for Non-communicable Disease in a Humanitarian Setting
Doocy et al. [38]
Intervention study on SR and HC (n = 793)
≥40 years or ≥ 18 with HTN or DM in 10 PHC in Lebanon
(Pilot study) mhealth as effective tool to improve adherence to guidelines and quality of care
Guidelines and mHealth to improve Quality of Hypertension and Type 2 Diabetes Care for Vulnerable Populations in Lebanon: Longitudinal Cohort Sudy
Doocy et al. [39]
Intervention study on SR and HC (n = 793)
≥40 years or ≥ 18 with HTN or DM in 10 PHC in Lebanon
  mhealth as effective tool to improve adherence to guidelines and quality of care
Outcomes of coronary artery bypass surgery in Syrian refugees
Demir et al. [40]
Chart review of SR (age = 58 ± 9.23 years) underwent coronary artery bypass surgery (n = 53) in Turkey   In light of the outcomes of the surgery, the authors recommended that patients should receive therapy for chronic disorders in addition to emergency interventions.
An overview of the health status of Syrian refugee children in a tertiary hospital in Turkey
Bucak et al. [41]
Chart review of SR children (n = 104) in Adiyaman hospital, Turkey T1DM (1%). Chronic malnutrition (using anthropometry) (20%). Anemia (blood results) (50%)  
A refugee camp in the center of Europe: clinical charactersitics of asylum seekers arriving in Brussels
Van Berlaer et al. [42]
Chart review Cross-sectional of Asylum seekers (Syrian, Iraqis, Afghanis and Palestinians), (n = 3907) field hospital in Brussels, Belgium [All age groups] More than 7% of patients reported comorbidities (n = 279), most commonly arterial hypertension (n = 103) and/or diabetes (n = 96). Patients also reported asthma (n = 19)  
Experience with migrants on Balkan Route from the Field Hospital on the Slovenian-Croatian Border
Bydzovsky et al. [43]
Chart review Cross-sectional of Asylum seekers (Syrian, Iraqis, Afghanis and Palestinians) (n = 6142) field hospital in Dobova on the Slovenian Croatian borders [All age groups] CVD: 11.67%, HT: 22%, COPD: 10%, DM 4.8%.  
On the ferries: the unmet health care needs of transiting refugees in Greece
Shortall et al. [44]
Chart review of Refugees (Syria, Afghanistan and Iraq) (n = 1405) in Greece [All age groups] 39.4% of diseases were classified as NCD.  
Cancer awareness and Barriers to Seeking Medical Help Among Syrian Refugees in Jordan: a Baseline Study
Al Qadire et al. [45]
Cross-sectional survey of SR adult (18–47 years), non-camp setting (n = 240), recruited from healthcare facilities in Jordan   Most common barrier to seeking healthcare is ‘no medical insurance (83.4%).
Cardiovascular disease risk and prevention among Syrian refugees: mixed methods study of Medecins Sans Frontieres programme in Jordan
Collins et al. [46]
Chart review Cross-sectional of SR (ages < 18 and < 40) (n = 2907), recruited from 2 outpatient NCD clinics in Jordan CVD: 20%, DM: 52%, high waist circumference: 73% Only 23% had a documented WHO/ISH risk score documented of which 35% were incorrect. 20% of subjects who were eligible were not prescribed lipid lowering medications. Healthcare professionals in the clinics perceived that individual health education sessions were often co-opted by more immediate medication needs
A Preliminary Description of Medical Complaints and Medication Consumption among 375 Syrian Refugees Residing in North Jordan
Gammoh [47]
Chart review Cross-sectional of SR Adults (> 20 yrs) at PHC (n = 220) in Jordan CVD: 28%; HT: 25%, Respiratory diseases: 7% N/A
  1. aSR Syrian refugee, HH Households, HT hypertension, DM Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, T1DM Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, N/A not applicable
  2. bIn this table, only original articles were described