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Table 5 Changes between baseline and follow-up in occupational, sociodemographica- and life-style factors and self-efficacy in the total study sample (for each individual calculated as follow-up – baseline); mean values and standard deviation (SD). Single- and multi-exposure models between the changes in the potential risk factors and burnout at follow-up (levels 0–3), estimated with Ordinal Regression, with p-values, odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). In the last step, the multi-factor model was adjusted for burnout (level 0–3) at baseline, thereby estimating change versus change associations

From: Burnout among school teachers: quantitative and qualitative results from a follow-up study in southern Sweden

     Burnout at follow-up (levels 0–3)
  Scale N Follow-up - baseline Single-exposure models Multi-exposure model Multi-exposure model, adjusted
Factors at baseline    Mean (SD) p OR (CI 95%) p OR (CI 95%) p OR (CI 95%)
Complaints on computer
  workstation arrangements; mean (SD) 1–5 306 0.0 (1.2)b 0.40 1.08 (0.90–1.31   -d   -d
 Job demands; mean (SD) 1–4 308 0.0 (0.4)b < 0.01 2.15 (1.21–3.81) 0.02 2.09 (1.12–3.92) < 0.001 3.41 (1.73–6.69)
 Job control – decision latitude; mean (SD) 1–4 310 0.0 (0.5)c < 0.01 0.53 (0.34–0.83) 0.01 0.48 (0.29–0.81) 0.01 0.51 (0.30–0.87)
Job control - Skill discretion; mean (SD) 1–4 310 0.0 (0.3)c 0.06 0.49 (0.23–1.03) 0.17 0.56 (0.24–1.28) 0.10 0.49 (0.21–1.15)
Job support from manager; mean (SD) 1–4 310 0.0 (0.5)c 0.20 0.77 (0.52–1.15) 0.54 1.15 (0.73–1.81) 0.85 1.04 (0.66–1.66)
Job support from collegues; mean (SD) 1–4 308 0.0 (0.4)c 0.26 0.74 (0.44–1.25) 0.34 0.75 (0.42–1.35) 0.22 0.69 (0.38–1.26)
Emotional demands; mean (SD) d 0–4 310 −0.1 (0.6)b 0.04 1.42 (1.01–2.0)   - e   - e
 Demands of hiding emotions; mean (SD) d 0–4 310 0.0 (0.8)b 0.07 1.29 (0.98–1.71)   - e   - e
 Leadership; mean (SD) d 0–4 310 0.0 (0.8)c 0.48 0.91 (0.69–1.19)   - e   - e
 Self- efficacy; mean (SD) 1–5 309 0.0 (0.5)c 0.06 0.62 (0.38–1.01) 0.26 0.73 (0.42–1.26) 0.05 0.57 (0.32–1.01)
 Personal relaxation time; mean (SD) 1–6 304 0.0 (1.2)c 0.86 0.98 (0.83–1.17)   - d   -d
 Household work; mean (SD) 1–5 306 −0.1 (0.9)b 0.06 1.27 (0.99–1.63) 0.23 1.18 (0.90–1.53) 0.11 1.25 (0.95–1.65)
 Physical exercise; mean (SD) 0–4 307 0.0 (1.1)c 0.40 1.08 (0.90–1.31)   - d   -d
Burnout at baseline overall 310       < 0.001  
  Level 0 165        1
  Level 1 102        2.65 (1.55–4.53)
  Level 2 30        8.79 (3.73–20.7)
  Level 3 13        23.0 (6.53–80.7)
  1. aAge, seniority, changes in year of compulsory school (only 7 participants) and changes in marital status (11 participants) were not included in the analysis
  2. bPositive values means worse conditions at follow up
  3. cPositive values means better conditions at follow-up
  4. dNot included in the multi-exposure model, due to a p-value ≥0.3 in the single-factor models
  5. eNot included in the multi-exposure model, due to a high collinearity with the dimensions job demands and/or job support