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Table 3 Multivariate regression DID estimates of the impact of payment reform on cesarean delivery, costs of childbirth per admission, length of stay and readmission

From: Cesarean delivery rates, costs and readmission of childbirth in the new cooperative medical scheme after implementation of an episode-based bundled payment (EBP) policy

Variable Cesarean delivery Ln (Total spending) Ln (Government expenses) Ln (OOPa payments) OOPa % of total spending Ln (Drug cost) Ln (Diagnostic testing cost) Ln (Other costb) Ln (LOSc) 30-day readmission 60-day readmission
Reform*Period −0.4150** (0.0645) − 0.3146** (0.0210) − 0.6030** (0.0264) − 0.1424** (0.0217) 8.7236** (0.4038) − 0.8643** (0.0646) − 0.2070** (0.0268) − 0.2582** (0.0187) − 0.1729** (0.0150) 0.400 (0.3921) 0.2772 (0.3312)
Reform − 0.1576* (0.0468) − 0.1270** (0.0152) 0.1737** (0.0191) 0.2216** (0.0156) −6.8458** (0.2909) − 0.5569** (0.0459) 0.1526** (0.0189) − 0.1118** (0.0135) 0.2252** (0.0109) 0.1617 (0.2990) 0.0279 (0.2605)
Period 0.5207** (0.0399) 0.3036**(0.0132) 0.6941** (0.0166) 0.0651** (0.0137) −12.5595** (0.2539) 0.4665** (0.0393) 0.2108** (0.0164) 0.3257** (0.0118) 0.0554** (0.0093) −0.0081 (0.2715) 0.2071 (0.2176)
Age 0.0415** (0.0046) 0.0145**(0.0015) 0.0145** (0.0019) 0.0148** (0.0015) 0.0135 (0.0286) 0.0281** (0.0045) 0.0008** (0.0019) 0.0128** (0.0013) 0.0047** (0.0011) 0.0250 (0.0323) 0.0083 (0.0256)
Age2 0.0002 (0.0006) −0.0001 (0.0002) 0.0003 (0.0003) −0.0003 (0.0002) − 0.0105** (0.0041) −0.0001 (0.0006) 0.0002 (0.0003) −0.0001 (0.0002) − 0.000006 (0.0002) −0.0232** (0.0075) − 0.0151** (0.0054)
Household 0.1181 (0.1107) 0.0050 (0.0365) 0.0540 (0.0458) −0.0173 (0.0376) −1.3474 (0.6998) −0.0453 (0.1105) 0.0319 (0.0463) −0.0010 (0.0324) 0.0131 (0.0263) −0.2862 (0.7209) − 0.1916 (0.5903)
Poverty 0.4256* (0.1117) 0.1303** (0.0372) 0.1409** (0.0468) 0.1305** (0.0383) 0.0298 (0.7132) 0.3559** (0.1116) 0.1603** (0.0468) 0.1010** (0.0330) 0.0734** (0.0262) −0.0418 (0.7166) 0.5051 (0.4587)
Tertiary −0.2507** (0.0372) 0.3339** (0.0121) −0.0781** (0.0152) 0.5562** (0.0125) 13.1980** (0.2319) 0.5286** (0.0364) 0.7678** (0.0151) 0.2575** (0.0107) 0.0797** (0.0086) 0.363 (0.2073) 0.4586** (0.1696)
N 17,311 17,310 17,297 17,310 17,310 16,578 16,598 17,310 16,894 17,311 17,311
  1. Standard errors in parentheses. *p<0.05; **p<0.01. aOOP Out-of-pocket; bOther cost: Physician services and therapeutic services cost; cLOS Length of stay, DID Difference in differences