Skip to main content

Table 5 Odds ratio of symptom or measured chronic diseases by behavioral risk factors and socioeconomic-demographic characteristics among adult population (18–69 years) in India, 2007

From: Association of behavioral risk factors with self-reported and symptom or measured chronic diseases among adult population (18–69 years) in India: evidence from SAGE study

Socioeconomic-demographic characteristics Symptom or measured chronic diseases (Adjusted odds ratio, 95% CIs)
Angina Depression Hypertension COPD Arthritis Asthma Stroke Diabetes
Physical activity
 Physical inactivity@
  Moderate active 1.37(0.97,1.94) 1.14(0.84,1.53) 1.20(0.89,1.63) 1.14(0.85,1.52) 1.39*(1.06,1.82) 1.75*(1.19,2.57) 0.69(0.38,1.25) 1.22(0.63,2.35)
  Vigorous active 1.55*(1.08,2.22) 1.04(0.77,1.40) 1.09(0.79,1.50) 1.38*(1.05,1.81) 1.25(0.95,1.65) 1.88*(1.30,2.73) 0.63(0.35,1.14) 0.76(0.41,1.41)
Nutritional status
 Inadequate intake# @
  Adequate intake## 1.29(0.66,2.55) 0.90(0.53,1.51) 1.07(0.63,1.81) 0.54*(0.30,0.98) 1.16(0.76,1.77) 0.58(0.25,1.35) 1.43(0.75,2.72) 0.47(0.22,1.03)
Alcohol consumption^
 Non-drinkers@
  Infrequent moderate drinkers 1.23(0.63,2.42) 1.30(0.71,2.36) 1.57(0.91,2.71) 1.83*(1.04,3.21) 0.94(0.56,1.58) 0.87(0.43,1.76) 0.90(0.24,3.38) 0.23*(0.09,0.57)
  Frequent heavy drinkers 0.71(0.22,2.33) 0.41(0.15,1.12) 0.52(0.23,1.19) 2.07(0.86,4.97) 1.86(0.81,4.29) 1.02(0.40,2.62) 0.56(0.09,3.46) 1.64(0.25,10.55)
Any tobacco use
 No@
 Yes 1.15(0.86,1.55) 1.11(0.85,1.45) 1.19(0.89,1.59) 0.91(0.71,1.17) 1.17(0.94,1.46) 1.14(0.82,1.60) 1.57(0.91,2.69) 1.02(0.60,1.71)
Body mass Index
 Normal weight@
  Underweight 1.00 (0.77,1.31) 1.30(1.00,1.68) 0.50*(0.39,0.66) 0.94(0.75,1.18) 0.86(0.69,1.06) 1.40*(1.00,1.96) 0.92(0.56,1.49) 1.05(0.50,2.17)
  Overweight 1.48(0.90,2.45) 1.21(0.82,1.77) 2.24*(1.57,3.19) 0.79(0.54,1.16) 2.14*(1.57,2.92) 1.40(0.77,2.54) 1.36(0.63,2.93) 2.63*(1.38,5.00)
  Obese 1.08(0.62,1.86) 1.13(0.63,2.03) 2.93*(1.71,5.03) 0.50*(0.25,0.99) 1.34(0.88,2.04) 0.95(0.50,1.8) 0.15*(0.05,0.50) 1.66(0.85,3.24)
Place of residence
Urban@
Rural 1.19(0.84,1.68) 0.93(0.69,1.26) 0.78(0.59,1.03) 1.07(0.80,1.42) 1.58*(1.20,2.07) 1.34(0.9,1.99) 1.68(0.89,3.17) 0.78(0.44,1.38)
Member’s sex
 Male@
 Female 1.78*(1.31,2.42) 1.39*(1.03,1.88) 1.40*(1.04,1.88) 1.84*(1.37,2.48) 2.08*(1.65,2.62) 0.70(0.48,1.03) 1.62(0.85,3.07) 0.37*(0.21,0.66)
Age group
 18-29@
  30–44 1.63(0.99,2.67) 2.89*(1.86,4.48) 2.73*(1.68,4.43) 1.46*(1.08,1.98) 2.94*(1.98,4.36) 1.95*(1.03,3.70) 2.43(0.87,6.81) 2.95(0.78,11.09)
  45–59 2.16*(1.30,3.61) 3.19*(2.06,4.95) 6.67*(4.08,10.92) 1.51*(1.10,2.05) 5.32*(3.53,8.03) 3.12*(1.63,6.00) 2.94*(1.08,8.05) 4.87*(1.29,18.41)
  60–69 3.45*(2.11,5.64) 4.82*(3.09,7.52) 10.4*(6.30,17.17) 1.71*(1.22,2.39) 8.75*(5.76,13.28) 5.56*(2.92,10.6) 4.49*(1.56,12.89) 6.46*(1.69,24.71)
Educational attainment+++
 No education@
  <primary & primary 0.96(0.71,1.30) 0.79(0.61,1.04) 1.12(0.85,1.48) 1.02(0.77,1.34) 1.01(0.81,1.26) 0.81(0.56,1.16) 1.35(0.74,2.47) 0.91(0.48,1.70)
  Secondary 0.79(0.51,1.21) 0.90(0.61,1.33) 0.89(0.62,1.29) 1.34(0.94,1.90) 0.81(0.57,1.14) 0.67(0.38,1.18) 1.77(0.69,4.53) 1.13(0.46,2.78)
  High school & above 0.62(0.36,1.04) 0.69(0.42,1.12) 1.07(0.74,1.55) 1.11(0.72,1.71) 0.83(0.57,1.21) 0.97(0.55,1.71) 1.23(0.41,3.65) 0.79(0.33,1.87)
Wealth Quintile
 Poorest@
  Poor 1.00(0.67,1.48) 1.01(0.71,1.43) 0.80(0.53,1.22) 1.43(1.00,2.05) 0.72*(0.53,0.97) 1.02(0.68,1.54) 0.80(0.39,1.63) 0.90(0.29,2.80)
  Middle 0.79(0.55,1.15) 1.15(0.80,1.65) 1.05(0.71,1.55) 1.56*(1.08,2.25) 0.77(0.58,1.03) 1.09(0.72,1.64) 0.63(0.30,1.30) 3.09*(1.00,9.56)
  Rich 1.06(0.72,1.58) 1.01(0.68,1.51) 1.17(0.77,1.76) 1.28(0.88,1.86) 0.73(0.52,1.01) 1.03(0.67,1.58) 0.61(0.28,1.34) 2.02(0.70,5.88)
  Richest 0.47*(0.29,0.75) 0.60*(0.39,0.93) 1.27(0.80,2.01) 1.12(0.74,1.70) 0.54*(0.38,0.77) 0.79(0.42,1.48) 0.50(0.21,1.17) 3.04*(1.11,8.36)
  1. Significant at * p < 0.05, @reference category
  2. Other control variables are place of residence, religion, caste, and religious services
  3. # ## +++ same define as in Table 1
  4. ^ Infrequent moderate alcohol drinkers includes 1–3 days/month with < 2 drinks, and frequent heavy alcohol drinkers includes 1–5 or more days/week with ≥3 drinks
  5. Note: Odds ratio presented in table are adjusted odds ratio and based on weighted analysis