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Table 3 Individual and school factors associated with abdominal obesity

From: Association between school-level attributes and weight status of Ghanaian primary school children

  Univariable model a    Multivariable model b
OR (95% CI) SE p-value OR (95% CI) SE p-value
Intercept (null model) 0.209 (0.120, 0.362) 0.059     
Age 1.108 (0.857, 1.432) 0.145 0.433 1.145 (0.891, 1.471) 0.146 0.289
Sex (Boy) 0.879 (0.545, 1.418) 0.214 0.597 0.888 (0.549, 1.437) 0.218 0.629
Median household wealth index 1.018 (0.885, 1.170) 0.072 0.805
Household SES
 Poor 1   
 Middle 1.262 (0.721, 2.211) 0.361 0.416
 Rich 1.236 (0.607, 2.517) 0.448 0.559
 School level SES 1.636 (1.155, 2.317) 0.290 0.006 1.501 (0.951, 2.369) 0.349 0.081
 School type (Private) 2.420 (0.880, 6.655) 1.249 0.087 0.489 (0.150, 1.593) 0.295 0.235
 School cafeteria 2.661 (1.017, 6.962) 1.306 0.046 1.401 (0.678, 2.896) 0. 519 0.362
 School shop 3.473 (1.410, 8.555) 1.597 0.007 1.234 (0.531, 2.871) 0.532 0.625
 Fast food outlets close to school 0.597 (0.075, 4.756) 0.632 0.626
 Healthful foods 1.556 (0.968, 2.503) 0.377 0.068 1.253 (0.881, 1.783) 0.225 0.210
 Less healthful foods 1.166 (0.910, 1.495) 0.148 0.224    
 PA facility index 0.822 (0.663, 1.019) 0.090 0.073 0.782 (0.627, 0.974) 0.088 0.028
 Minutes per week for PA 0.993 (0.960, 1.027) 0.017 0.694
 School support for active transport 0.940 (0.614, 1.438) 0.204 0.775
 Perceived neighbourhood quality 1.128 (0.821, 1.550) 0.183 0.456
 After-school PA facilities 1.815 (1.323, 2.492) 0.293 < 0.0001 1.642 (1.233, 2.187) 0.240 0.001
 Physical activity policies and practices 0.308 (0.046, 2.081) 0.300 0.227
 Nutrition and healthy eating policies and practices 0.715 (0.149, 3.427) 0.512 0.675
 Physical activity on timetable 0.702 (0.157, 3.132) 0.535 0.642
Random effects
 School level 0.871 (0.299, 2.421) 0.044     
 ICC 0.206 (0.083, 0.424) 0.087     
  1. a Univariable models using mixed effects logistic regression; b Explanatory variables with p-values less than 0.20 were forced into the same multivariable model (full model). Variables adjusted for: school level SES, school type, school cafeteria, school shop, healthful foods, PA facility index, after-school recreational facilities, sex and child’s age. OR odds ratio, SE standard error, CI confidence intervals. PA physical activity, SES socioeconomic status