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Table 2 Individual and school factors associated with overweight

From: Association between school-level attributes and weight status of Ghanaian primary school children

  Univariable models a    Multivariable models b
OR (95% CI) SE p-value OR 95% CI SE p-value
Intercept (null model) 0.150 (0.074, 0.303) 0.054     
Age 0.931 (0.710, 1.220) 0.128 0.604 1.031 (0.791, 1.343) 0.139 0.823
Sex (Boys) 0.901 (0.540, 1.502) 0.235 0.689 0.921 (0.551, 1.540) 0.241 0.755
Median household wealth index 1.068 (0.915, 1.246) 0.084 0.404
Household SES
 Poor 1      
 Middle 1.398 (0.751, 2.560) 0.442 0.290
 Rich 1.220 (0.562, 2.648) 0.482 0.615
 School level SES 2.052 (1.433, 2.939) 0.376 < 0.0001 1.998 (1.153, 3.462) 0.560 0.014
 School type (Private) 4.190 (1.350, 13.004) 2.421 0.013 0.399 (0.110, 1.442) 0.262 0.161
 School cafeteria 3.815 (1.245, 11.690) 2.179 0.019 1.329 (0.458, 3.857) 0.722 0.601
 School shop 5.067 (1.744, 14.721) 2.757 0.003 1.343 (0.557, 3.237) 0.603 0.511
 Fast food outlets close to school 1.379 (0.091, 20.851) 1.911 0.871
 Healthful foods 2.313 (1.265, 4.229) 0.712 0.006 1.577 (1.055, 2.358) 0.323 0.026
 Less healthful foods 1.274 (0.946, 1.716) 0.193 0.110 0.944 (0.735, 1.214) 0.121 0.656
 PA facility index 0.848 (0.672, 1.071) 0.101 0.167 0.835 (0.661, 1.054) 0.099 0.129
 Minutes per week for PA 0.980 (0.935, 1.028) 0.024 0.420
 School support for active transport 0.936 (0.547, 1.603) 0.267 0.810
 Perceived neighbourhood quality 1.263 (0.845, 1.887) 0.259 0.255
 After-school recreational facilities 1.849 (1.187, 2.883) 0.419 0.007 1.375 (1.013, 1.866) 0.214 0.041
 Physical activity policies and practices 0.217 (0.020, 2.325) 0.263 0.207
 Nutrition and healthy eating policies and practices 1.076 (0.131, 8.808) 1.154 0.946
 Physical activity on timetable 0.571 (0.087, 3.741) 0.547 0.559
Random effects
 School level 1.408 (0.485, 4.090) 0.766     
 ICC 0.300 (0.128, 0.554) 0.114     
  1. a Univariable models using mixed effects logistic regression; b Explanatory variables with p-values less than 0.20 were forced into the same multivariable model (full model). Covariates adjusted for: school level SES, school type, school cafeteria, school shop, healthful foods, less healthful foods, PA facility index, after school recreational facilities, sex and child’s age. OR odds ratio, SE standard error, CI confidence intervals. PA physical activity, SES socioeconomic status