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Table 2 Associations between variables regarding ambient air pollutant exposure and respiratory symptoms

From: Relationships between perceived health status and ambient air quality parameters in healthy Japanese: a panel study

  Dependent variables (0, no symptom; 1, having symptom)
  Symptom 1 Symptom 2 Symptom 3 Symptom 4 Symptom 5
Independent variables OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Kumamoto
 Hours spent outdoors (each 1 h) 1.01 0.96–1.07 0.97 0.94–1.01 0.97 0.93–101 1.01 0.97–1.07 0.99 0.95–1.03
 Temperature (each 10 °C) 0.93 0.79–1.09 1.05 0.97–1.14 0.98 0.89–1.07 0.92 0.79–1.06 0.95 0.88–1.04
 Relative humidity (each 10%) 0.78 0.67–0.90 0.95 0.89–1.02 0.94 0.73–0.96 0.84 0.73–0.96 0.86 0.79–0.93
 Carbon monoxide (each 10 ppb) 1.00 0.99–1.01 1.00 1.00–1.00 1.00 1.00–1.01 1.00 1.00–1.01 1.00 1.00–1.01
 Nitrogen dioxide (each 10 ppb) 1.08 0.83–1.44 1.01 0.87–1.17 1.15 0.97–1.37 1.18 0.93–1.49 1.12 0.94–1.31
 Oxidants (each 10 ppb) 1.16 1.06–1.27 1.06 1.01–1.12 1.03 0.98–1.09 1.10 1.02–1.20 1.10 1.04–1.16
 Sulfur dioxide (each 10 ppb) 0.65 0.21–2.00 0.34 0.17–0.67 0.57 0.24–1.33 0.61 0.16–2.22 1.45 0.71–2.97
 SPM (each 10 μg/m3) 1.17 1.02–1.34 1.10 1.02–1.20 1.08 0.99–1.18 1.07 0.95–1.21 1.15 1.06–1.26
 PM2.5 (each 10 μg/m3) 1.17 1.03–1.33 1.17 1.03–1.33 1.10 0.96–1.27 1.18 0.94–1.49 1.32 1.15–1.52
 Asian sand dust event (each 1 event in last one month) 1.11 1.05–1.17 1.03 1.00–1.05 0.99 0.96–1.02 1.03 0.98–1.09 1.03 1.00–1.07
Niigata
 Hours spent outdoors (each 1 h) 1.01 0.97–1.06 1.00 0.97–1.03 0.99 0.96–1.03 1.02 0.98–1.06 0.96 0.93–0.99
 Temperature (each 10 °C) 0.98 0.84–1.14 0.93 0.87–1.00 1.04 0.95–1.14 0.98 0.85–1.12 1.02 0.94–1.09
 Relative humidity (each 10%) 1.08 0.83–1.42 0.90 0.79–1.03 1.13 0.97–1.32 0.97 0.74–1.27 0.71 0.61–0.83
 Carbon monoxide (each 10 ppb) 1.01 0.98–1.04 1.00 0.98–1.02 0.99 0.97–1.01 0.99 0.97–1.02 1.02 1.00–1.04
 Nitrogen dioxide (each 10 ppb) 0.73 0.46–1.17 0.93 0.72–1.21 0.96 0.69–1.32 0.83 0.55–1.22 1.03 0.78–1.38
 Oxidants (each 10 ppb) 0.96 0.87–1.06 1.02 0.97–1.07 0.98 0.92–1.04 1.03 0.94–1.14 1.14 1.07–1.21
 Sulfur dioxide (each 10 ppb) 1.93 0.09–45.52 0.95 0.15–5.89 0.51 0.05–5.69 1.02 0.05–21.65 2.26 0.30–17.19
 SPM (each 10 μg/m3) 0.96 0.78–1.18 0.93 0.83–1.04 0.97 0.84–1.12 0.93 0.77–1.12 1.16 1.02–1.32
 PM2.5 (each 10 μg/m3) 0.90 0.63–1.31 0.94 0.77–1.15 0.94 0.72–1.23 0.95 0.66–1.36 1.20 0.96–1.49
 Asian sand dust event (each 1 event in last one month) 0.98 0.87–1.11 0.98 0.92–1.04 1.01 0.93–1.09 1.08 0.97–1.19 1.10 1.03–1.18
  1. Symptom 1, weather affects a cough; symptom 2, coughing up sputum when the subject does not have a cold; symptom 3, coughing up sputum first thing in the morning; symptom 4, frequent wheeze; symptom 5, allergic symptoms. Odds ratios (OR) were adjusted by year of survey, gender, age, body mass index (kg/m2), smoking status (current, former, or never smoker), working status (active worker or retired/ not in employment). CI, confidence interval; ppb, part per billion; SPM, Suspended particulate matter; PM2.5, Particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter