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Table 1 Demographic and smoking characteristics in overall participants, nonsmokers, and cigarette smokers

From: Sleep quality in cigarette smokers and nonsmokers: findings from the general population in central China

Variables Overall nonsmokers smokers p*
(n = 26,282) (n = 19,632) (n = 6650)
Age (yrs), M ± SD 38.1 ± 16.06 36.6 ± 16.26 42.2 ± 14.57 < 0.001*
Range (yrs) 12–99 12–99 12–93  
 12–17, % 10.2% 13.2% 1.7%
 18–29, % 23.3% 24.5% 19.2%
 30–39, % 17.2% 17.3% 17.0%
 40–49, % 28.8% 26.3% 36.0%
 50–59, % 9.6% 8.3% 13.1%
 ≥60, % 11.0% 10.3% 13.0%
Education (yrs), M ± SD 10.6 ± 3.79 10.7 ± 3.81 10.4 ± 3.70 < 0.001*
 Illiteracy or Primary school% 19.0% 18.6% 20.2%
 Middle school% 32.5% 32.4% 32.8%
 High school% 23.3% 22.9% 24.8%
 University% 25.2% 26.1% 22.3%
BMIˣ, M ± SD 21.2 ± 2.91 21.0 ± 2.92 21.9 ± 2.76 < 0.001
Personal income (CNY) 2228 ± 3388.98 2015.5 ± 3227.15 2818.0 ± 3738.50 < 0.001
Employed % 78.1% 73.3% 92.4% < 0.001
Female % 46.8% 60.9% 5.5% < 0.001
Married % 67.9% 64.8% 77.0% < 0.001
 First marriage% 67.3% 64.3% 76.1%
 Re-married % 0.6% 0.5% 0.9%
Unmarried % 32.1% 35.2% 23.0% < 0.001
 Never married% 26.4% 29.9% 16.1%
 Divorced % 1.9% 1.7% 2.6%
 Widowed % 3.2% 3.1% 3.5%
 Separated % 0.5% 0.4% 0.8%
Rural region% 31.2% 30.6% 33.1% < 0.001
Urban region % 68.8% 69.4% 66.9% < 0.001
 Provincial capital city% 22.8% 23.5% 21.1%
 Prefecture-level city% 16.4% 16.5% 15.9%
 County-level city% 16.9% 16.7% 17.6%
 Small town% 12.5% 12.6% 12.4%
Smoking years 16.7 ± 12.17
Smoked cigarettes/day 18.4 ± 14.84
Quit attempts response (yes)% 28.3%
Attempts 2.9 ± 6.32
Smoking craving 4.9 ± 2.42
Alcohol drinker% 20% 8.2% 54.8% < 0.001
Drinking years 15.5 ± 12.58 13.6 ± 12.48 16.3 ± 12.53 < 0.001
Alcoholic drinks per week 4.4 ± 4.31 4.0 ± 4.01 4.5 ± 4.43 < 0.001
  1. M mean, SD standard deviation, n number; %: the percentage of subjects
  2. Cigarette smoker was defined as smoked > 100 cigarettes in the life time
  3. Alcohol drinking was defined as drunk > 30 g alcohol (equal to 900 ml beer) per week
  4. Difference in percentage or mean differences analyzed between nonsmokers and smokers by the Chi-squared test and the Wilcoxon rank sum test (Mann-Whitney U-test) respectively
  5. * Significant difference between groups of nonsmokers and smokers, p < 0.01
  6. % The distribution of participants in each group or subgroup
  7. ˣ Body Mass Index (BMI) was obtained from self-reported height. It was calculated as weight (in kilograms) divided by height (in meters) squared
  8. Smoking craving was measured by the Visual Analogue Scale for Craving (VASc) using a scale from 0 to 10, where a score of 0 represents null craving and a score of 10 represents the most extreme craving