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Table 3 Coefficients from two-level linear regression models for height among children aged 5–18 years, 2011

From: The association between urbanization and child height: a multilevel study in China

effects Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
Coefficient SE P Coefficient SE P Coefficient SE P Coefficient SE P
Fixed effects
 Intercept −0.10 0.05 0.04 − 0.59 0.10 < 0.01 −9.76 0.86 < 0.01 −9.69 0.89 < 0.01
Individual variables- Level-1
 Age (year)        −0.05 0.01 < 0.01 − 0.05 0.01 < 0.01
 Gender (ref. = female)        0.13 0.06 0.04 0.13 0.06 0.03
Ethnicity (ref. = Han)
 Miao        −0.10 0.22 0.67 −0.13 0.22 0.55
 Buyi        −0.34 0.23 0.17 −0.20 0.23 0.40
 Tujia        −0.37 0.28 0.20 −0.37 0.27 0.20
 Maternal height        0.06 0.01 < 0.01 0.06 0.01 < 0.01
Maternal Education level (ref. = low school)
 middle school        0.10 0.08 0.22 0.05 0.08 0.53
 high school        0.39 0.12 < 0.01 0.18 0.13 0.15
Family income per capita (ref. = 1st Q)
 2nd Quintile        0.19 0.10 0.07 0.18 0.10 0.07
 3rd Quintile        0.26 0.10 0.01 0.25 0.10 0.01
 4th Quintile        0.23 0.10 0.03 0.22 0.10 0.03
 5th Quintile        0.30 0.11 0.01 0.25 0.11 0.02
Energy intake from protein (%)      3.01 0.96 < 0.01 2.40 0.97 0.01
Community variables- Level-2
 Urbanization Index (ref. = 1st Q)
  2nd Quintile     0.19 0.14 0.18 0.14 0.13 0.28    
 3rd Quintile     0.62 0.14 < 0.01 0.26 0.13 0.04    
 4th Quintile     0.75 0.14 < 0.01 0.25 0.13 0.06    
 5th Quintile     0.82 0.14 < 0.01 0.39 0.14 < 0.01    
 Urbanization components
  Communication           0.02 0.04 0.69
  Population Density           0.05 0.03 0.10
  Diversity           0.02 0.04 0.62
  Economic Activity           0.01 0.02 0.56
  Health Infrastructure           0.01 0.02 0.87
  Housing           −0.05 0.04 0.22
  Traditional Markets           − 0.01 0.01 0.15
  Social Services           −0.02 0.01 0.15
  Transportation           −0.01 0.02 0.77
  Education           0.13 0.03 < 0.01
  Modern Markets           −0.03 0.02 0.17
  Sanitation           0.02 0.02 0.29
Random effects
 Intercept 0.40 0.05 < 0.01 0.29 0.04 < 0.01 0.12 0.03 < 0.01 0.10 0.03 < 0.01
 Residual 1.11 0.04 < 0.01 1.12 0.04 < 0.01 1.01 0.04 < 0.01 1.00 0.04 < 0.01
-2LL 5009.10 4963.70 3653.30 3625.50
ICC 0.26 0.20 0.21 0.09
  1. Model 1: empty model; Model 2: added urbanization index in community level from Model 1; Model 3: added individual and community variables from Model 2; Model 4: added urbanization components instead of urbanization index in community level from Model 3. The inter-class correlation coefficient (ICC) is a ratio of between-community variance to total variance in children’s heights.-2LL: negative twice likelihood ratio.