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Table 4 Multilevel models for vigorous-intensity physical activity with unstandardised and standardised fixed effects at individual- and country-level (N = 138,014)

From: Do country-level environmental factors explain cross-national variation in adolescent physical activity? A multilevel study in 29 European countries

   Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
   b (SE) p β b (SE) p β b (SE) p β
Fixed effects (individual -level) Intercept 1.709 (0.218) < .001   −2.745 (1.144) .415   −1.992 (0.961) 0.011  
Gender a 0.738 (0.049) < .001 .16 0.738 (0.049) < .001 .16 0.738 (0.049) < .001 .16
Age 0.039 (0.014) .005 .03 0.039 (0.014) .005 .03 0.039 (0.014) 0.005 .03
Fixed effects (country-level) Ntl. temperature     −0.035 (0.011) .002 −.23 −0.034 (0.010) .001 −.23
Urbanisation     0.013 (0.005) .004 .32 0.015 (0.004) < .001 .36
Adult PA     0.028 (0.010) .005 .42 0.023 (0.009) .009 .34
Safety     0.008 (0.004) .037 .17    
Ntl. income     0.066 (0.016) < .001 .67 0.064 (0.012) < .001 .65
Income inequality     0.004 (0.013) .767 .03    
PE policy     −0.003 (0.002) .247 −.14    
Transport policy     −0.115 (0.109) .288 −.12    
Variance components Individual-level 4.923 (0.118) < .001   4.923 (0.118) < .001   4.923 (0.118) < .001  
School-level 0.208 (0.025) < .001   0.207 (0.025) < .001   0.207 (0.025) < .001  
Country-level b 0.248 (0.058) < .001   0.038 (0.009) < .001   0.046 (0.013) < .001  
  1. Ntl. National, PA Physical Activity, PE Physical Education. National income divided by 1000 for interpretability of b values
  2. aFemale is reference group
  3. bExplained country-level variance = (.248–.046)/.248 = .81
  4. p<.05 are set in bold