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Table 1 Descriptive characteristics of the individual- and country–level sample (N = 138,014)

From: Do country-level environmental factors explain cross-national variation in adolescent physical activity? A multilevel study in 29 European countries

Sample    Individual-Level Characteristics Country-Level Characteristics
     11-year-olds 13-year-olds 15-year-olds Physical Socio-cultural Economic Political
Country n n schools Mean age Girls (%) MVPA VPA MVPA VPA MVPA VPA Temp. (°C) Urban (%) Adult PA (%) Safety (%) Ntl. inc. Inc. ineq. PE policy Trans. policy
Austria 3,351 204 13.40 53.06 4.87 3.12 4.53 3.08 3.45 2.87 7.0 65.9 76.2 84.5 25,927 27.6 90.0 1
Belgium (Flemish) 3,954 58 13.64 46.13 4.17 3.29 3.98 3.06 3.67 3.32 9.0 97.8 66.8 79.9 23,778 25.9 1.0 0
Belgium (French) 5,795 190 13.47 50.27 4.20 2.83 3.97 2.82 3.72 2.88 9.0 97.8 66.8 79.9 23,778 25.9 76.0 0
Bulgaria 4,419 160 13.73 47.61 4.75 2.07 4.39 2.04 4.06 1.99 9.6 73.6 79.0 58.3 9,236 35.4 57.5 0
Croatia 5,138 223 13.65 50.12 4.94 1.87 4.60 2.20 4.01 2.08 12.5 58.7 83.8 87.3 12,496 30.2 53.0 1
Czech Republic 4,847 93 13.46 52.36 4.62 1.99 4.47 2.48 3.99 2.52 6.8 73.0 76.2 74.0 16,086 25.1 59.0 0
Denmark 3,510 48 13.78 53.79 3.87 3.03 3.83 3.67 3.67 3.71 7.5 87.5 75.7 88.2 22,458 27.7 75.0 1
England 4,416 50 13.62 49.68 4.63 2.26 4.29 2.38 3.83 2.45 9.7 82.3 62.7 76.2 22,297 31.6 1.0 1
Estonia 3,985 90 13.76 50.09 4.21 2.05 3.98 2.44 3.77 2.61 5.5 67.6 88.1 69.4 13,882 35.6 61.3 1
Finland 5,677 359 13.77 51.51 5.46 3.35 4.78 3.42 4.22 3.48 2.7 84.1 76.5 91.3 23,282 25.6 57.0 1
France 5,180 240 13.48 49.46 3.90 2.40 3.68 2.55 3.31 2.43 11.2 79.3 76.2 73.4 24,113 29.2 117.0 1
Germany 5,500 172 13.50 49.13 4.18 2.91 3.92 3.03 3.58 3.01 7.8 75.1 78.9 77.9 27,070 30.7 60.8 1
Greece 3,995 243 13.65 50.31 3.99 2.63 3.88 2.65 3.30 2.37 16.9 77.7 87.1 52.9 15,249 34.5 58.5 0
Hungary 3,745 255 13.41 50.49 4.60 2.15 4.08 2.30 3.86 2.43 10.0 70.8 81.9 71.3 13,178 28.6 69.0 0
Ireland 3,556 163 13.71 61.30 5.27 2.59 4.62 2.56 3.92 2.48 9.6 63.0 64.9 77.7 19,403 31.1 43.0 0
Italy 3,906 177 13.67 50.03 3.51 2.07 3.45 2.40 3.20 2.49 13.5 68.8 66.8 70.1 20,813 32.4 66.0 0
Latvia 5,470 131 13.59 52.49 4.28 2.04 4.05 2.21 3.95 2.44 6.0 67.4 78.0 49.5 11,979 35.5 46.0 0
Lithuania 5,576 131 13.58 49.52 4.35 2.22 4.17 2.79 4.00 3.00 6.2 66.5 81.6 57.9 15,432 35.0 60.8 0
Netherlands 4,160 145 13.50 51.18 4.47 3.90 4.41 3.83 4.15 3.61 9.3 89.9 84.5 85.3 22,729 26.2 1.0 1
Norway 2,595 134 13.38 52.41 4.74 3.42 4.18 3.71 3.84 3.84 4.3 80.2 74.2 90.0 27,745 23.5 72.1 1
Poland 4,420 196 13.58 50.34 4.97 2.45 4.42 2.19 3.87 2.09 6.9 60.6 81.3 84.7 14,274 30.8 100.4 0
Portugal 4,704 35 13.51 52.38 4.11 1.78 3.75 1.91 3.41 1.93 15.7 62.9 65.1 81.9 16,342 34.5 79.3 0
Romania 3,886 150 13.21 52.88 4.36 1.94 3.92 1.96 3.22 1.85 8.4 54.4 74.7 66.8 12,376 35.0 44.5 1
Scotland 5,450 266 13.68 50.66 4.70 3.17 4.23 2.99 3.83 2.80 8.1 82.3 62.7 76.2 22,297 31.6 76.0 1
Slovakia 5,211 130 13.48 50.95 4.70 2.40 4.43 2.20 4.11 2.22 6.2 53.8 82.2 70.2 15,444 26.1 56.0 1
Slovenia 4,753 262 13.63 51.40 4.61 2.32 4.21 2.46 3.58 2.29 7.7 49.7 78.7 93.3 16,360 25.0 76.8 0
Spain 9,032 336 13.61 51.64 4.91 2.19 4.55 2.46 4.21 2.56 15.5 79.4 69.5 82.0 18,245 34.7 39.5 0
Sweden 7,053 386 13.63 50.69 4.31 2.85 3.93 3.00 3.84 3.24 4.7 85.7 71.3 85.6 23,481 25.4 55.6 0
Wales 4,730 82 13.71 49.53 4.24 2.16 4.06 2.50 3.55 2.45 9.9 82.3 62.7 76.2 22,297 31.6 1.0 1
Mean 4,759 176.17 13.58 50.97 4.49 2.52 4.18 2.63 3.79 2.67 8.9 73.7 75.0 76.3 19,036 30.1 57.0 0.48
  1. MVPA Moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (days/week), VPA Vigorous-intensity physical activity (hours/week), Temp. National temperature, Adult PA Adult physical activity, Ntl. inc. National income, Inc. ineq. Income inequality, PE Physical Education, Trans. Transport