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Table 5 Observed handwashing behaviors at toileting events by age group of the students (n = 844 toilet use events in 30 schools)

From: Effect of an equipment-behavior change intervention on handwashing behavior among primary school children in Kenya: the Povu Poa school pilot study

  Pre-intervention Post-Intervention Visits
Post-intervention overall Visit 1 (0–5 weeks since intervention) Visit 2 (6–19 weeks since intervention) Visit 3 (20–25 weeks since intervention)
Observed handwashing behavior, all events (n = 461 events in 30 schools) (n = 383 events in 30 schools) (n = 198 events in n = 30 schools) (n = 105 events in n = 20 schools) (n = 80 events in n = 10 schools)
No handwashing 354 (76.7%) 68 (17.8%) 51 (25.8%) 17 (16.2%) 0 (0%)
Handwashing with water only 53 (11.4%) 138 (36.0%) 60 (30.3%) 46 (43.8%) 32 (40%)
Handwashing with water and soap 0 (0.0%) 98 (25.6%) 55 (27.8%) 23 (21.9%) 20 (25%)
Could not observe 54 (11.7%) 79 (20.6%) 32 (16.2%) 19 (18.1%) 28 (35%)
PR for observed handwashing (vs. no handwashing), all events
Observed handwashinga Ref. 5.96 (3.02, 11.76) 5.32 (2.61, 10.83) 6.16 (2.96, 12.82) N/A**
Observed handwashing behavior, age ≤ 10 years old (n = 442 events) (n = 217 events) (n = 225 events) (n = 109 events) (n = 64 events) (n = 52 events)
No handwashing 181 (83.4%) 29 (12.9%) 19 (17.4%) 10 (15.6%) 0 (0.0%)
Handwashing with water only 10 (4.6%) 86 (38.2%) 33 (30.3%) 29 (45.3%) 24 (46.2%)
Handwashing with water and soap 0 (0.0%) 61 (27.1%) 36 (33.0%) 12 (18.8%) 13 (25.0%)
Could not observe 26 (12.0%) 49 (21.8%) 21 (19.3%) 13 (20.3%) 15 (28.8%)
PR for observed handwashing (vs. no handwashing), age ≤ 10 years old
Observed handwashinga Ref. 15.95 (5.57, 45.65) 14.98 (5.11, 43.90) 15.35 (5.20, 45.30) N/Ab
Observed handwashing behavior, age > 10 years old (n = 402 events) (n = 244 events) (n = 158 events) (n = 89 events) (n = 41 events) (n = 28 events)
No handwashing 173 (70.9%) 39 (24.7%) 32 (36.0%) 7 (17.1%) 0 (0.0%)
Handwashing with water only 43 (17.6%) 52 (32.9%) 27 (30.3%) 17 (41.5%) 8 (28.6%)
Handwashing with water and soap 0 (0.0%) 37 (23.4%) 19 (21.3%) 11 (26.8%) 7 (25.0%)
Could not observe 28 (11.5%) 30 (19.0%) 11 (12.4%) 6 (14.6%) 13 (46.4%)
PR for observed handwashing (vs. no handwashing), age > 10 years old
Observed handwashinga Ref. 3.49 (1.2, 6.34) 2.96 (1.57, 5.59) 4.02 (2.03, 7.94) N/Ab
  1. aAccounted for clustering by school, hands washed with either water only or with water and soap
  2. bRR (95% CI) for the outcome not available due to perfect prediction