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Table 1 Key Messages and Segment Content for Each Landlord Meeting

From: Using a theory-driven creative process to design a peri-urban on-site sanitation quality improvement intervention

Outcome Improved Cleaning Rota Inside Lock Outside Lock Covered or Water-sealed Toilet
Surprise Key Message An improved rota keeps the toilet clean and makes your tenants happy. Without an inside lock on your toilet, your tenants are robbed of their privacy. A toilet without an outside lock will be abused by others and anger your tenants. A smelly toilet full of flies will scare away paying tenants.
Video Description Tenants gossip about who doesn’t clean the toilet, and this boils over into full-blown conflict and blaming the landlord for not handling the problem. Tenants struggle to keep the toilet door closed, culminating with a man walking in on a woman using the toilet. An argument ensues, and both end up blaming the landlord for the lack of a lock. Drunk men stumble in to use the toilet at night, but when the landlord finds it dirty in the morning and yells at a tenant, she turns it back on him for not securing the toilet from outsiders. A series of potential tenants come to look at a room for rent, ask to see the toilet, and then abruptly leave, confusing the landlord about what the problem was. The tenants privately discuss that they will go rent a more expensive place with a better toilet.
Revaluation Key Message Your toilet stays clean when the rota is simple and visible A lack of privacy will drive good tenants away. Asking tenants to do disgusting things will drive good tenants away. A toilet is a wise investment that brings you more money quickly.
Activity Description Two teams were chosen with a landlord and 3 tenants each, and the tenants are assigned numbers—one team in blocks (i.e., 1–10) that are visible, and another in a more complicated, unwritten manner (i.e., every 3rd number). Landlords take turns identifying the tenant with a given number. The facilitator asks for a chosen landlord to open their handbag and reveal every detail of the items inside and emphasizes the discomfort this lack of privacy causes. Several participants were asked to come up one at a time to hold a tissue while the facilitator pretends to blow their nose loudly and messily. The facilitator translates this into the disgust tenants feel in having to clean up after outsiders who are messy and aren’t responsible to clean. Two participants are assigned to invest either in improving the toilet or building a new room to rent. The toilet generates income sooner, rental gains are multiplied by the number of tenants, and a scenario where income is reduced shows that this is a more reliable and way to generate wealth.
Performance Key Message Give your tenants the power to remind one another of their responsibilities. It is easy to install an inside lock by yourself or with your lock-buddy. Remember to call on your ‘landlord lock-buddy’ to help you install an outside lock. Invest in a decent cover pan (or a pour-flush toilet) to keep your plot full of tenants and build your wealth.
Activity Description Landlords are given a badge to hang outside the door of the tenant responsible for cleaning the toilet that week and asked to have a meeting with all tenants to institute the new system. A handy man demonstrates installing a lock and then has landlords take turns practicing. “Lock buddies” are paired up to purchase and install locks. Same as performance for inside lock. A handyman describes how to build a simple cover and the process and cost of installing various flushing toilet options. Merry-go-rounds suggested to spread out the cost over time and encourage accountability to each other.