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Table 1 Characteristics of Schoolchildren by Presence or Absence of Treated Epilepsy

From: Educational and health outcomes of children and adolescents receiving antiepileptic medication: Scotland-wide record linkage study of 766 244 schoolchildren

  No epilepsy Epilepsy P value
N = 760,930 N = 5314
N % N %
Sociodemographic factors
 Sex
  Male 387,672 50.9 2618 49.3 0.015
  Female 373,258 49.1 2696 50.7  
  Missing 0   0   
 Deprivation quintile  
  1 (most deprived) 172,422 22.7 1372 25.8 < 0.001
  2 152,434 20.0 1135 21.4  
  3 146,897 19.3 1027 19.3  
  4 148,538 19.5 985 18.5  
  5 (least deprived) 140,049 18.4 791 14.9  
  Missing 590   4   
 Ethnic group
  White 723,055 96.2 5061 96.2 < 0.001
  Asian 17,641 2.3 136 2.6  
  Black 1956 0.3 9 0.2  
  Mixed 6684 0.9 44 0.8  
  Other 2066 0.3 10 0.2  
  Missing 9528   54   
 Medication for comorbid conditions
  Diabetes 3278 0.4 52 1.0 < 0.001
  Asthma 45,397 6.0 503 9.5 < 0.001
  ADHD 7236 1.0 177 3.3 < 0.001
  Depression 4888 0.6 454 8.5 < 0.001
Maternity factors
 Maternal age (years)
  ≤24 208,289 27.4 1589 29.9 < 0.001
  25–29 222,902 29.3 1638 30.8  
  30–34 215,540 28.3 1395 26.3  
  ≥35 114,187 15.0 692 13.0  
  Missing 12   0   
 Maternal smoking
  No 487,860 72.4 3254 69.9 < 0.001
  Yes 186,387 27.6 1402 30.1  
  Missing 86,683    658  
 Parity
  0 343,228 45.3 2437 46.0 0.400
  1 262,333 34.7 1809 34.2  
  > 1 151,521 20.0 1049 19.8  
  Missing 3848   19   
 Mode of delivery      
  SVD 512,788 67.4 3431 64.6 < 0.001
  Assisted vaginal 91,039 12.0 618 11.6  
  Breech vaginal 2211 0.3 22 0.4  
  Elective CS 57,907 7.6 407 7.7  
  Emergency CS 96,822 12.7 834 15.7  
  Other 161 0.0 2 0.0  
  Missing 2   0   
 Gestation (weeks)
  < 24 27 0.0 2 0.0 < 0.001
  24–27 1087 0.1 38 0.7  
  28–32 6935 0.9 123 2.3  
  33–36 35,255 4.6 347 6.5  
  37 37,279 4.9 340 6.4  
  38 95,243 12.5 749 14.1  
  39 157,648 20.7 1092 20.6  
  40 228,958 30.1 1472 27.7  
  41 170,243 22.4 950 17.9  
  42 26,934 3.5 190 3.6  
  43 624 0.1 6 0.1  
  > 43 140 0.0 0 0.0  
  Missing 557   5   
 Sex-gestation-specific birthweight centile
  1–3 31,173 4.1 313 5.9 < 0.001
  4–10 68,129 9.0 517 9.7  
  11–20 90,686 11.9 662 12.5  
  21–80 447,092 58.8 3029 57.1  
  81–90 64,956 8.5 407 7.7  
  91–97 40,956 5.4 265 5.0  
  98–100 16,969 2.2 110 2.1  
  Missing 969   11   
 5-min Apgar
  1–3 3619 0.5 90 1.7 < 0.001
  4–6 7181 1.0 121 2.3  
  7–10 742,359 98.6 5053 96.0  
  Missing 7771   50   
  1. ADHD attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, N number, SVD spontaneous vaginal delivery, CS Caesarean section