Skip to main content

Table 1 Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the study subjects by commuting mode

From: Association of commuting mode with dyslipidemia and its components after accounting for air pollution in the working population of Beijing, China

Characteristics Total
(n = 8090)
Car or Taxi
(n = 2325)
Walking
(n = 957)
Cycling
(n = 933)
Bus
(n = 1937)
Subway
(n = 1938)
P value
Gender (male), n (%) 4541 (56.13) 1452 (31.98) 512 (11.28) 610 (13.43) 1003 (22.09) 964 (21.23) < 0.0001
Age (years) 37 (31–46) 39.00 (33.00–47.00) 36.00 (28.00–47.00) 40.00 (33.00–48.00) 37.00 (30.00–47.00) 34.00 (29.00–40.00) < 0.0001
BMI (kg/m2) 23.9 (21.40–26.40) 24.40 (22.00–27.10) 23.50 (21.20–26.00) 24.50 (22.00–26.80) 23.60 (21.20–26.00) 23.40 (21.10–26.00) < 0.0001
MAP (mmHg) 93.33 (83.33–100.00) 93.33 (86.67–100.67) 93.33 (83.33–100.00) 93.33 (90.00–103.33) 93.33 (84.00–100.00) 90.00 (83.33–96.67) < 0.0001
FPG (mmol/L) 5.13 (4.83–5.49) 5.18 (4.87–5.54) 5.11 (4.81–5.49) 5.18 (4.89–5.55) 5.12 (4.81–5.49) 5.07 (4.79–5.39) < 0.0001
TC (mmol/L) 4.63 (4.09–5.23) 4.76 (4.21–5.34) 4.59 (4.00–5.24) 4.60 (4.06–5.21) 4.61 (4.09–5.22) 4.53 (4.03–5.14) < 0.0001
TGs (mmol/L) 1.10 (0.74–1.71) 1.28 (0.82–1.96) 1.00 (0.71–1.54) 1.12 (0.77–1.78) 1.04 (0.73–1.64) 1.02 (0.70–1.52) < 0.0001
HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.24 (1.06–1.46) 1.21 (1.03–1.42) 1.28 (1.10–1.49) 1.23 (1.04–1.44) 1.26 (1.09–1.47) 1.26 (1.07–1.48) < 0.0001
LDL-C (mmol/L) 2.77 (2.31–3.31) 2.85 (2.38–3.41) 2.77 (2.29–3.33) 2.73 (2.27–3.28) 2.77 (2.29–3.31) 2.71 (2.27–3.18) < 0.0001
Non-HDL-C (mmol/L) 3.35 (2.80–3.98) 3.52 (2.93–4.14) 3.27 (2.74–3.90) 3.33 (2.77–3.99) 3.32 (2.78–3.95) 3.25 (2.74–3.83) < 0.0001
Commuting time (hours) 1.00 (0.50–1.00) 1.00 (0.50–1.00) 0.50 (0.20–0.50) 0.50 (0.50–1.00) 1.00 (1.00–1.50) 1.00 (1.00–1.50) < 0.0001
Dyslipidemia (n, %) 2419 (29.90) 836 (35.96) 272 (28.42) 275 (29.47) 520 (26.85) 516 (26.63) < 0.0001
Elevated TC (n, %) 426 (5.27) 148 (6.37) 59 (6.17) 42 (4.50) 93 (4.80) 84 (4.33) 0.0141
Elevated TGs (n, %) 1120 (13.84) 432 (18.58) 102 (10.66) 126 (13.50) 250 (12.91) 210 (10.84) < 0.0001
Elevated LDL-C (n, %) 595 (7.35) 220 (9.46) 74 (7.73) 62 (6.65) 126 (6.50) 113 (5.83) 0.0001
Reduced HDL-C (n, %) 1481 (18.31) 528 (22.71) 158 (16.51) 172 (18.44) 301 (15.54) 322 (16.62) 0.0001
Elevated non-HDL-C (n, %) 441 (5.45) 166 (7.14) 53 (5.54) 41 (4.39) 97 (5.01) 84 (4.33) 0.0004
Age group (n, %)        < 0.0001
<  45 years old 5812 (71.84) 1577 (67.83) 665 (69.49) 623 (66.77) 1297 (66.96) 1650 (85.14)  
≥ 45 years old 2278 (28.16) 748 (32.17) 292 (30.51) 310 (33.23) 640 (33.04) 288 (14.86)  
BMI group        < 0.0001
<  28 kg/m2 6997 (86.49) 1948 (83.78) 840 (87.77) 790 (84.67) 1702 (87.87) 1717 (88.60)  
≥ 28 kg/m2 1093 (13.51) 377 (16.22) 117 (12.23) 143 (15.33) 235 (12.13) 221 (11.40)  
Education level (n, %)        < 0.0001
High school or lower 963 (11.90) 177 (7.61) 185 (19.33) 212 (22.72) 271 (13.99) 118 (6.09)  
College 5228 (64.62) 1652 (71.05) 572 (59.77) 537 (57.56) 1232 (63.60) 1235 (63.73)  
Graduate degree or above 1899 (23.47) 496 (21.33) 200 (20.90) 184 (19.72) 434 (22.41) 585 (30.19)  
  1. Data are presented as the median (interquartile range) or n (%)
  2. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, MAP mean arterial pressure, FPG fasting plasma glucose, TC total cholesterol, TGs triglycerides, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, non-HDL-C non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol