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Table 2 Multi-level regression exploring the association of sociodemographic, macroeconomic and environmental variables with life satisfaction in 27 EU countries, 2014–2015

From: Association of environmental and sociodemographic factors with life satisfaction in 27 European countries

  Ordered regression modela Logistic regression modelb
Odds Ratio p-value 95% CI Odds Ratio p-value 95% CI
Area of residence
 Rural (ref.)       
 Urban 1.00 0.597 0.98–1.01 0.98 0.098 0.96–1.00
Gender
 Female (ref.)       
 Male 0.91 < 0.001 0.89–0.92 0.92 < 0.001 0.90–0.94
Marital status
 Married (ref.)       
 Single 0.66 < 0.001 0.64–0.68 0.66 < 0.001 0.64–0.68
 Divorced 0.58 < 0.001 0.56–0.59 0.59 < 0.001 0.56–0.61
 Widowed 0.60 < 0.001 0.58–0.62 0.61 < 0.001 0.58–0.63
 Other 0.74 < 0.001 0.67–0.82 0.74 < 0.001 0.66–0.83
Occupation
 Employed (ref.)       
 Houseperson 0.83 < 0.001 0.80–0.86 0.94 0.008 0.89–0.98
 Student 1.35 < 0.001 1.29–1.41 1.40 < 0.001 1.32–1.47
 Unemployed 0.44 < 0.001 0.43–0.46 0.58 < 0.001 0.55–0.61
 Retired 0.77 < 0.001 0.75–0.79 0.89 < 0.001 0.86–0.92
Age
 65+ years old (ref.)       
 55–64 0.81 < 0.001 0.79–0.83 0.81 < 0.001 0.78–0.84
 45–54 0.80 < 0.001 0.77–0.83 0.79 < 0.001 0.75–0.82
 35–44 1.01 0.528 0.98–1.05 0.95 0.033 0.91–1.00
 25–34 1.24 < 0.001 1.19–1.29 1.15 < 0.001 1.09–1.20
 15–24 1.79 < 0.001 1.71–1.89 1.65 < 0.001 1.55–1.76
Difficulty paying bills
 Never (ref.)       
 From time to time 0.39 < 0.001 0.38–0.40 0.38 < 0.001 0.37–0.39
 Most of the time 0.14 < 0.001 0.14–0.14 0.28 < 0.001 0.27–0.30
Mean annual temperature 0.98 0.203 0.94–1.01 0.98 0.396 0.93–1.03
Sunshine (h per day) 0.94 0.171 0.87–1.03 0.93 0.204 0.83–1.04
Precipitation (per 100 L/m2) 1.00 0.867 0.97–1.03 1.02 0.258 0.98–1.06
GDP per capita (per €1000) 1.01 0.001 1.00–1.02 1.01 0.025 1.00–1.02
Affected by the crisis   
 No (ref.)       
 Yes 1.01 0.943 0.85–1.19 1.16 0.195 0.92–1.47
Land use with heavy environmental impact (as % of total land) 0.98 0.036 0.97–1.00 0.99 0.240 0.97–1.01
Season
 Spring (ref.)       
 Summer 0.91 < 0.001 0.90–0.93 0.94 < 0.001 0.92–0.97
 Autumn 0.97 0.013 0.96–0.99 0.96 0.002 0.94–0.98
 Winter 0.94 < 0.001 0.92–0.97 0.90 < 0.001 0.87–0.94
  1. a Results interpreted as odds ratio of reporting a higher level of life satisfaction for a one-unit change in the independent variable (or compared to a reference category in categorical independent variables)
  2. b Results interpreted as odds ratio of being very satisfied with life -compared to all other responses- for a one-unit change in the independent variable (or compared to a reference category in categorical independent variables)