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Table 2 Characteristics of health-related outcomes assessed by the included studies

From: Scoping review of the impacts of urban agriculture on the determinants of health

Reference and study design
Determinants of health N Quantitative Qualitative Mixed methods
    Perceived benefits Perceived challenges UA Motivations  
Food security 47 [7, 32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47,48,49,50] [51,52,53,53], [54]a, [55,56,57,57], [58,59,60]b, [61, 62]   [54]a, [63] [64,65,66,67,68,69,70,71,72,73,74,75,76,77]
Social and community networks (social capital) 36 [33, 45, 48, 78], [79]b, [80,81,82] [52, 55], [58]b, [59]a,b, [60]b, [61, 62], [83], [84]b, [85,86,87,88,89,90,91], [92, 93]b [51, 56] [59]a,b [63] [66, 68, 73, 75, 94,95,96]
Health and/or well-being 24 [10, 33, 43, 45, 78, 82], [97, 98]b [5, 51, 55, 89, 90], [92]b, [99], [100]b, [101], [102]a   [102]a [67, 68, 73, 74, 94, 103]
Sanitation and/or food safety 24 [15, 16, 37, 104,105,106,107,108,109,110,111,112,113,114,115,116,117,118,119]   [5, 55]   [77, 120, 121]
Income, cost savings and/or employment 23 [32, 34, 36, 41,42,43, 45, 47, 122] [56, 57], [58]b, [83], [100]b   [101] [66, 67, 69, 71,72,73, 76, 95]
Nutrition 17 [7, 8, 33, 40, 44, 47,48,49, 80], [123]b, [124] [5], [92]b, [101]    [70, 103, 125]
Natural and/or physical environments 9 [80, 126] [83], [84]b, [102] [5], [57], [92]b   [72]
Cultural connection 8   [52, 53, 61, 86, 88]   [63, 91] [77]
Lifestyle 6 [37, 78], [98]b [84]b   [91] [65]
Education and/or empowerment 5 [44] [60]b, [90]    [103, 125]
  1. aFindings were discussed in more than one category
  2. bStudy quality was rated as strong