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Table 3 Multinomial Logit-model Estimation. Dependent Variable: drinking- frequency

From: Do the unemployed hit the bottle during economic downturns? An empirical approach for Spain

  Base outcome = 0
(1) (2) (3)
Variable
 Pre-crisis (2006)
  Unemployed −1.302 (− 4.46) *** − 0.665 (− 1.78) * − 0.596 (− 3.52) ***
  Age − 0.056 (− 6.33) *** 0.015 (1.31)   0.026 (4.07) ***
  Male 1.267 (7.09) *** 1.527 (6.09) *** 1.353 (10.31) ***
  Educ2 − 0.075 (− 0.29)   − 0.420 (−1.11)   −0.153 (− 0.81)  
  Educ3 0.377 (1.61)   0.248 (0.80)   0.230 (1.30)  
  Educ4 0.708 (2.22) ** 0.153 (0.33)   0.428 (1.67) *
  Educ5 0.884 (3.43) *** 0.973 (3.08) *** 0.635 (3.15) ***
  Married −0.540 (−2.97) *** −0.054 (− 0.22)   − 0.033 (− 0.24)  
  Nationality − 0.388 (−1.20)   −0.205 (− 0.44)   −0.053 (− 0.21)  
 Crisis (2011–2012)
  Unemployed −0.079 (− 0.85)   − 0.695 (− 0.63)   −0.015 (− 0.23)  
  Age −0.030 (−9.16) *** 0.058 (1.72) * 0.044 (19.62) ***
  Male 1.557 (20.36) *** 2.702 (2.46) *** 1.821 (35.41) ***
  Educ2 −0.418 (−4.57) *** −0.303 (− 0.30)   − 0.126 (−1.96) **
  Educ3 1.032 (6.92) ** 0.405 (0.32)   0.445 (5.52) ***
  Educ4 1.023 (5.81) *** 1.805 (1.43)   0.495 (4.47) ***
  Educ5 1.201 (7.81) *** −12.119 (−0.03)   0.655 (7.52) ***
  Married −0.376 (−4.80) *** −1.425 (− 1.66) * − 0.069 (− 1.34)  
  Nationality − 0.501 (− 4.05) *** 2.735 (3.37) *** − 0.346 (− 3.91) ***
  1. Drinking-frequency: 0 if does not drink alcohol, 1 if drinks alcohol only on weekends, 2 if drinks alcohol only on weekdays, and 3 if drinks alcohol on weekends and weekdays alike
  2. Education is categorized in terms of five levels of educational attainment (Educ1-Educ5, with Educ1 “primary education or below” being the reference category Educ2: Compulsory secondary education; Educ3: Non-compulsory and pre-university secondary education; Educ4: Specific labour training; Educ5: University graduate
  3. z-statistics in parentheses
  4. Observations: 4079 for 2006 and 11,321 for 2011–2012
  5. Reference category: the reverse one for each dichotomous variable
  6. ***p < 0.01, **p < 0.05, *p < 0.10.