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Table 2 Logistic Estimation. Dependent Variable: drinker

From: Do the unemployed hit the bottle during economic downturns? An empirical approach for Spain

  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)
Variable/specification
 Pre-crisis (2006)
  Unemployed 0.789 [0.691–0.901] ***           
  Unem_never    0.709 [0.358–1.404]          
  Unem_6      0.886 [0.731–1.073]       0.868 [0.716–1.051]  
  Unem_6_12        0.529 [0.362–0.774] ***    0.519 [0.355–0.760] ***
  Unem_12          0.821 [0.666–1.011] * 0.806 [0.654–0.993] **
  Age 1.037 [1.033–1.041] *** 1.037 [1.033–1.041] *** 1.037 [1.033–1.041] *** 1.037 [1.033–1.041] *** 1.037 [1.033–1.042] *** 1.037 [1.033–1.041] ***
  Male 4.166 [3.834–4.526] *** 4.217 [3.833–4.581] *** 4.217 [3.883–4.580] *** 4.214 [3.880–4.577] *** 4.200 [3.887–4.563] *** 4.177 [3.845–4.538] ***
  Educ2 0.983 [0.864–1.118]   0.989 [0.869–1.125]   0.988 [0.867–1.124]   0.989 [0.869–1.125]   0.987 [0.868–1.123]   0.984 [0.865–1.121]  
  Educ3 0.898 [0.804–1.002] ** 0.909 [0.815–1.014] * 0.908 [0.814–1.013] * 0.907 [0.813–1.012] * 0.906 [0.812–1.011] * 0.900 [0.806–1.004] *
  Educ4 0.978 [0.842–1.136]   0.992 [0.855–1.151]   0.991 [0.853–1.150]   0.992 [0.855–1.151]   0.989 [0.852–1.147]   0.982 [0.846–1.140]  
  Educ5 0.845 [0.755–0.946] *** 0.863 [0.771–0.965] *** 0.860 [0.769–0.961] *** 0.859 [0.768–0.960] *** 0.857 [0.767–0.959] *** 0.847 [0.757–0.948] ***
  Married 0.958 [0.881–1.042]   0.971 [0.893–1.055]   0.969 [0.892–1.053]   0.965 [0.887–1.049]   0.967 [0.889–1.052]   0.957 [0.880–1.041]  
  Nationality 0.650 [0.559–0.757] *** 0.651 [0.559–0.757] *** 0.652 [0.560–0.759] *** 0.650 [0.558–0.756] *** 0.649 [0.558–0.755] *** 0.649 [0.557–0.755] ***
  Pseudo R2 0.106 0.105 0.105 0.106 0.105 0.106
Variable
 Crisis (2011–2012)
  Unemployed 1.014 [0.914–1.126]            
  Unem_never    0.587 [0.316–1.090] *         
  Unem_6      1.276 [1.074–1.514] ***      1.263 [1.063–1.501] ***
  Unem_6_12        1.033 [0.816–1.309]     1.039 [0.820–1.318]  
  Unem_12          0.884 [0.768–1.116] * 0.899 [0.781–1.035]  
  Age 1.027 [1.023–1.030] *** 1.026 [1.022–1.030] *** 1.027 [1.023–1.030] *** 1.026 [1.023–1.030] *** 1.026 [1.023–1.030] *** 1.027 [1.023–1.030] ***
  Male 4.468 [4.112–4.855] *** 4.465 [4.109–4.850] *** 4.457 [4.102–4.843] *** 4.469 [4.114–4.856] *** 4.477 [4.121–4.865] *** 4.463 [4.108–4.850] ***
  Educ2 0.909 [0.820–1.007] * 0.912 [0.823–1.010] * 0.903 [0.815–1.000] ** 0.909 [0.821–1.007] * 0.914 [0.825–1.013] * 0.906 [0.818–1.004] *
  Educ3 1.364 [1.191–1.561] *** 1.355 [1.184–1.550] *** 1.369 [1.197–1.567] *** 1.362 [1.190–1.559] *** 1.354 [1.183–1.550] *** 1.362 [1.190–1.560] ***
  Educ4 1.352 [1.132–1.614] *** 1.342 [1.124–1.602] *** 1.359 [1.139–1.622] *** 1.350 [1.131–1.611] *** 1.338 [1.121–1.597] *** 1.348 [1.130–1.610] ***
  Educ5 1.379 [1.196–1.590] *** 1.371 [1.189–1.580] *** 1.386 [1.202–1.597] *** 1.377 [1.195–1.587] *** 1.362 [1.181–1.570] *** 1.373 [1.191–1.584] ***
  Married 0.825 [0.759–0.896] *** 0.823 [0.757–0.894] *** 0.825 [0.759–0.896] *** 0.825 [0.759–0.896] *** 0.821 [0.755–0.892] *** 0.822 [0.756–0.893] ***
  Nationality 0.743 [0.645–0.856] *** 0.744 [0.647–0.857] *** 0.738 [0.641–0.850] *** 0.743 [0.646–0.856] *** 0.747 [0.649–0.861] *** 0.740 [0.643–0.853] ***
  Pseudo R2 0.096 0.096 0.096 0.096 0.096 0.096
  1. 95% CI in square brackets
  2. Education is categorized in terms of five levels of educational attainment (Educ1-Educ5, with Educ1 “primary education or below” being the reference category. Educ2: Compulsory secondary education; Educ3: Non-compulsory and pre-university secondary education; Educ4: Specific labour training; Educ5: University graduate
  3. Observations: 14,696 for 2006 and 14,981 for 2011–2012
  4. Reference category: the reverse one for each dichotomous variable
  5. ***p < 0.01, **p < 0.05, *p < 0.10