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Table 1 The average energy/macronutrients/micronutrients intake with the recommendations and percentage of subjects achieving recommendations

From: Diet optimization using linear programming to develop low cost cancer prevention food plan for selected adults in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Energy/Macronutrient / Micronutrient Average Intake ± SP Percentage of Intake from Energy Recommendation % Of subjects achieving Recommendation
Energy (kcal) 1580 ± 300    70.5
Protein (g) 56 ± 18.5 14.7% ± 4.6% 10–20%3 78
Carbohydrates (g) 203 ± 45.8 53.5% ± 11.2% 50–65%3 66
Fat (g) 48 ± 17.09 28.5% ± 9.5 25–30%3 59
Cholesterol (mg) 184 ± 91 <  300 mg/day3 89
Saturated Fat (g) 15 ± 6.8 9% ± 1% < 10%1 79
Monounsaturated (g) 11 ± 5 6.5% ± 2.5% 12–15%3 2
Polyunsaturated (g) 9 ± 4 5.3% ± 2.5% 3–7%3 33
Fibre (g) 7.5 ± 4 25–301 0
Sodium (mg) 2585 ± 544 <  20001 20
Potassium 1181 ± 483 ≥ 47003 0
Vitamin A 954 ± 812 600–30003 80
Beta-Carotene 1061 ± 813 25001 6
Vitamin E (mg) 4 ± 2.3 7.5–10003 10
Vitamin K (μg) 32 ± 20 55–10003 15
Vitamin C (mg) 36 ± 25 70–20003 8
Vitamin B12 (μg) 2 ± 1.5 ≥ 43 20
Folate (μg) 124 ± 76.6 400–10003 2
Iron (mg) 13 ± 5.2 29–453 0
Calcium 418 ± 226 1000–25003 0
Thiamine (mg) 1 ± 0.2 ≥1.13 33
Riboflavin (mg) 1 ± 0.9 ≥ 1.13 45
Niacin (mg) 11 ± 4 14–353 26
Zinc (mg) 5.5 ± 1.61 4.7–353 30
Magnesium (mg) 124 ± 70.8 320–5003 0
Copper (mg) 0.6 ± 0.5 0.9–23 10
Selenium (μg) 35 ± 18.4 24–4003 66
Phosphorus (mg) 822 ± 322 700–30003 67
Sugar (g) 51 ± 19.8 < 103 (50 g) 44
  1. Source: 1WCRF/AICR 2007, 2MDG 2010, 3RNI 2017