Skip to main content

Table 2 Comparison of baseline characteristics

From: Factors associated with motoric cognitive risk syndrome among low-income older adults in Malaysia

Variables MCR (n = 47) NON-MCR (n = 1319) p value
n (%) / Mean ± SD n (%) / Mean ± SD
Age (years)a 72.74 ± 7.08 68.52 ± 5.88 <  0.001*
Genderb
 Male 12 (25.5) 660 (50.0) 0.001*
 Female 35 (74.5) 659 (50.0)  
Education (years)a 3.26 ± 2.91 5.04 ± 3.81 < 0.001*
Marrital statusb 0.002
 Married 21 (44.7) 888 (67.3)  
 Single/widow/widower/divorced 26 (55.3) 431 (32.7)  
Smoking Habitb
 Smoker 7 (14.9) 239 (18.1) 0.235
 Non Smoker 40 (72.1) 1080 (81.9)  
Alcohol Consumptionb
 Yes 0 (0) 58 (4.4) 0.260
 No 47 (3.6) 1261 (95.6)  
Strata Statusb 0.011*
 Rural 34 (72.3) 699 (53.0)  
 Urban 13 (27.7) 620 (47.0)  
Obesityb 0.039
 Yes 11 (23.4) 160 (12.1)  
 No 36 (76.6) 1159 (87.9)  
GDSa 3.64 ± 2.88 3.03 ± 2.33 0.160
Chronic diseases b
Hypertension
 Yes 27 (57.4) 675 (51.6) 0.461
 No 20 (42.6) 633 (48.4)  
Diabetes
 Yes 17 (36.2) 342 (26.1) 0.132
 No 30 (63.8) 966 (73.9)  
Hypercholesterolemia
 Yes 20 (42.6) 530 (40.5) 0.765
 No 27 (57.4) 778 (59.5)  
Arthritis
 Yes 12 (25.5) 331 (25.3) 1.000
 No 35 (74.5) 977 (74.7)  
Stroke
 Yes 0 (0) 20 (1.5) 0.393
 No 47 (100) 1288 (98.5)  
Cardiovascular disease
 Yes 8 (17.0) 116 (8.9) 0.068
 No 39 (83.0) 1192 (91.1)  
Chronic obstructive lung disease
 Yes 1 (0.4) 4 (0.3) 0.816
 No 228 (99.6) 1183 (99.7)  
Cancer
 Yes 2 (4.3) 10 (0.8) 0.063
 No 45 (95.7) 1287 (99.2)  
  1. GDS Geriatric Depressive Scale
  2. aIndependent t-test
  3. bChi-squared test
  4. *Significant at p < 0.05