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Table 4 Sociodemographic characteristic, medical profile, nutritional status, dietary intake and psychosocial profile of rural respondents [Presented as mean ± SD or n(%)]

From: Factors associated with poor socioeconomic status among Malaysian older adults: an analysis according to urban and rural settings

  Low SES (n = 325) Medium SES (n = 373) High SES (n = 433) Total (n = 1131)
Age, years 70.9 ± 6.6 68.5 ± 6.5 68.7 ± 5.9 69.5 ± 6.5***
Education, years 3.3 ± 2.8 4.7 ± 3.2 4.4 ± 3.4 4.4 ± 3.4***
Gender
 Women 245 (56.6) 164 (44.0) 143 (44.0) 552 (48.8)***
 Men 188 (43.4) 209 (56.0) 182 (31.4) 579 (51.2)
Ethnicity
 Malay 382 (88.2) 322 (86.3) 281 (28.5) 985 (87.1)
 Chinese 45 (10.4) 42 (11.3) 39 (12.0) 126 (11.1)
 India & Others 6 (1.4) 9 (2.4) 5 (1.5) 18 (1.6)
Marital status
 Single 11 (3.4) 9 (2.5) 6 (1.4) 26 (2.4)***
 Married 204 (63.8) 264 (72.1) 333 (79.3) 801 (72.4)
 Divorced 105 (32.8) 93 (25.4) 81 (19.3) 279 (25.2)
Smoking
 Non-smoker 280 (87.5) 308 (84.2) 384 (91.4) 972 (87.9)**
 Smoker 40 (12.5) 58 (15.8) 36 (8.6) 134 (12.1)
Living Status
 With others 266 (83.1) 324 (88.5) 401 (95.5) 991 (89.6)***
 Alone 54 (16.9) 42 (11.5) 19 (4.5) 115 (10.4)
Medical History
 Diabetes
  No 334 (77.1) 277 (74.3) 245 (75.4) 856 (75.7)
  Yes 99 (22.9) 96 (25.7) 80 (24.6) 275 (24.3)
 Hypertension
  No 209 (48.3) 192 (51.5) 173 (53.2) 574 (50.8)
  Yes 224 (51.7) 181 (48.5) 152 (46.8) 557 (49.2)
 Vision or hearing
  No 951 (84.1) 312 (83.6) 295 (90.8) 951 (84.1)***
  Yes 180 (15.9) 61 (16.4) 30 (9.2) 180 (15.9)
 Urinary incontinence
  No 294 (90.5) 327 (87.7) 374 (86.4) 995 (88.0)
  Yes 31 (9.5) 46 (12.3) 59 (13.6) 136 (12.0)
 Constipation
  No 368 (85.0) 326 (87.4) 296 (91.1) 990 (87.5)*
  Yes 65 (15.0) 47 (12.6) 29 (8.9) 141 (12.5)
 Asthma
  No 371 (85.7) 336 (90.1) 303 (93.2) 1042 (94.2)**
  Yes 62 (14.3) 37 (9.9) 22 (6.8) 64 (5.8)
 Heart disease
  No 392 (90.5) 336 (90.1) 286 (88.8) 1014 (89.7)
  Yes 41 (9.5) 37 (9.9) 39 (11.2) 117 (10.3)
 Arthritis
  No 249 (76.6) 273 (73.2) 307 (70.9) 829 (73.3)
  Yes 76 (23.4) 100 (26.8) 126 (29.1) 302 (26.7)
 Stroke
  No 316 (98.2) 363 (97.3) 423 (97.7) 1105 (97.7)
  Yes 6 (1.8) 10 (2.7) 10 (2.3) 26 (2.3)
 Hypercholesterolemia
  No 232 (71.4) 282 (75.6) 338 (78.1) 852 (75.3)
  Yes 93 (28.6) 91 (24.4) 95 (21.9) 279 (24.7)
Anthropometry
 Body Mass Index, kg/m2 25.7 ± 4.2 24.7 ± 4.1 24.0 ± 4.7 24.7 ± 4.4***
 Waist Hip Ratio 0.9 ± 0.1 0.9 ± 0.1 0.9 ± 0.1 0.9 ± 0.1
 Weight, kg 56.0 ± 12.1 60.2 ± 11.5 62.8 ± 12.2 59.3 ± 12.2***
 Height, cm 152.6 ± 8.7 155.8 ± 8.2 156.2 ± 8.6 154.7 ± 8.7***
 MUAC, cm 27.4 ± 3.6 28.3 ± 3.2 28.9 ± 3.4 28.1 ± 3.5***
 Waist circumference, cm 86.1 ± 12.3 87.5 ± 10.8 89.3 ± 10.7 87.5 ± 11.4**
 Hip circumference, cm 93.0 ± 9.9 95.0 ± 9.0 97.6 ± 9.2 95.0 ± 9.6***
 Calf circumference, cm 31.3 ± 3.8 32.7 ± 3.4 33.7 ± 3.6 32.5 ± 3.8***
 BMI category, n(%)
  Underweight 232 (54.1) 162 (44.4) 109 (34.4) 503 (45.3)***
  Normal 101 (23.5) 107 (29.3) 95 (30.0) 303 (27.3)
  Overweight 96 (22.4) 96 (26.3) 113 (35.6) 305 (27.5)
Dietary
 Protein, per 1000 kcal/day 44.8 ± 8.4 43.7 ± 8.5 43.5 ± 8.8 44.0 ± 8.6
 Carbohydrate, per 1000 kcal/day 135.6 ± 20.4 135.9 ± 20.1 134.0 ± 19.6 135.2 ± 20.3
 Fat, per 1000 kcal/day 31.1 ± 9.1 31.2 ± 7.6 32.2 ± 7.3 31.4 ± 8.1
 SFA, per 1000 kcal/day 4.9 ± 2.8 5.0 ± 2.8 4.8 ± 2.8 4.9 ± 2.8
 Fibre, per 1000 kcal/day 1.8 ± 1.1 2.1 ± 1.3 2.5 ± 1.4 2.1 ± 1.3
 Sugar, per 1000 kcal/day 11.5 ± 9.0 14.0 ± 10.3 14.4 ± 9.0 13.2 ± 9.6
 Vitamin C, per 1000  kcal/day 61.2 ± 44.9 64.8 ± 46.0 67.6 ± 43.5 64.2 ± 44.9
 Vitamin E, per 1000 kcal/day 6.1 ± 26.9 7.4 ± 32.6 3.3 ± 3.5 5.0 ± 23.9
 Folate, per 1000 kcal/day 54.4 ± 37.8 59.6 ± 45.4 66.1 ± 49.1 59.4 ± 44.0**
 Sodium, per 100 kcal/day 860.8 ± 590.1 865.7 ± 553.7 875.0 ± 542.2 866.5 ± 564.3
 Potassium, per 1000 kcal/day 905.8 ± 257.5 904.5 ± 259.2 919.2 ± 284.8 909.2 ± 265.9
 Calcium, per 1000 kcal/day 315.4 ± 137.8 333.9 ± 182.5 333.2 + 159.2 328.3 ± 161.7
 Iron, per 1000 kcal/day 8.1 ± 2.7 8.0 ± 2.4 8.5 ± 2.8 8.2 ± 2.7
 Calorie restriction
  No 123 (38.4) 143 (39.1) 179 (41.9) 719 (66.8)
  Yes 197 (61.6) 223 (33.4) 170 (41.6) 248 (58.1)
 Fresh fruits intake (days/week) 2.8 ± 2.2 3.1 ± 2.3 4.0 ± 2.4 3.2 ± 2.3***
 Ulam intake per week  (days/week) 5.1 ± 2.3 5.5 ± 2.1 5.7 ± 2.1 5.4 ± 2.2***
Psychosocial
 Disability 10.1 ± 10.3 9.9 ± 11.6 6.6 ± 9.4 8.9 ± 10.6
 Loneliness 3.3 ± 0.9 3.3 ± 0.9 3.2 ± 0.7 3.3 ± 0.9
 Depression 3.1 ± 2.3 2.5 ± 2.1 2.5 ± 2.0 2.7 ± 2.2***
Cognitive Function
 Digit span 6.5 ± 1.9 7.2 ± 2.0 7.6 ± 2.4 7.0 ± 2.2***
 Digit symbol 3.5 ± 1.4 4.1 ± 1.7 4.9 ± 2.3 4.1 ± 1.9***
 MMSE 20.0 ± 4.9 22.7 ± 4.5 23.7 ± 4.5 22.0 ± 4.9***
 Percentile VRI 29.1 ± 28.7 38.1 ± 31.5 43.4 ± 32.2 36.2 ± 31.3***
 Percentile VR II 17.1 ± 23.8 28.3 ± 31.7 35.9 ± 35.0 26.3 ± 31.0***
Physical Fitness
 2 min step test, number 54.0 ± 24.9 58.7 ± 25.8 63.9 ± 24.0 58.4 ± 25.3***
 Grip strength, kg 20.7 ± 7.4 23.6 ± 7.7 24.1 ± 8.0 22.6 ± 7.8***
 Chair stand test, number 8.6 ± 2.9 9.5 ± 2.9 10.0 ± 3.0 9.3 ± 3.0***
 Chair sit and reach, cm −0.30 ± 12.1 −2.0 ± 10.9 −0.3 ± 10.9 −0.8 ± 11.4
 TUG, seconds 12.8 ± 4.0 11.4 ± 3.1 11.4 ± 2.9 12.0 ± 3.5***
 Back scratch test, cm 17.0 ± 12.2 15.9 ± 12.6 16.5 ± 12.8 16.5 ± 12.5
  1. Abbreviation: TUG Timed up and go test, MUAC Mid upper arm circumference, MMSE Mini Mental State Examination, RAVLT Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test
  2. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01;***p < 0.001