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Table 3 Sociodemographic characteristic, medical profile, nutritional status, dietary intake and psychosocial profile of urban respondents [Presented as mean ± SD or n(%)]

From: Factors associated with poor socioeconomic status among Malaysian older adults: an analysis according to urban and rural settings

  Low SES (n = 320) Medium SES (n = 366) High SES (n = 420) Total (n = 1106)
Age, years 70.1 ± 6.1 68.5 ± 5.7 67.4 ± 5.7 68.6 ± 5.9***
Education years 3.3 ± 3.4 5.6 ± 3.7 8.3 ± 4.3 6.0 ± 4.4***
Gender
 Women 209 (65.3) 193 (52.7) 198 (47.1) 600 (54.2)***
 Men 111 (34.7) 173 (47.3) 222 (52.9) 506 (45.8)
Ethnicity
 Malay 96 (30.0) 129 (35.2) 200 (47.6) 425 (38.4)***
 Chinese 208 (65.0) 206 (56.3) 174 (41.4) 588 (53.2)
 India & Others 16 (5.0) 31 (8.5) 46 (11.0) 93 (8.4)
Marital status
 Single 11 (3.4) 9 (2.5) 6 (1.4) 26 (2.4)***
 Married 204 (63.8) 264 (72.1) 333 (79.3) 801 (72.4)
 Divorced 105 (32.8) 93 (25.4) 81 (19.3) 279 (25.2)
Smoking
 Non-smoker 280 (87.5) 308 (84.2) 384 (91.4) 972 (87.9)**
 Smoker 40 (12.5) 58 (15.8) 36 (8.6) 134 (12.1)
Living Status
 With others 266 (83.1) 324 (88.5) 401 (95.5) 991 (89.6)***
 Alone 54 (16.9) 42 (11.5) 19 (4.5) 115 (10.4)
Medical History
 Diabetes
  No 239 (74.7) 250 (68.3) 310 (73.8) 799 (72.2)
  Yes 81 (25.3) 116 (31.7) 110 (26.2) 307 (27.8)
 Hypertension
  No 155 (48.4) 171 (46.7) 211 (50.2) 537 (48.6)
  Yes 165 (51.6) 195 (53.3) 209 (49.8) 569 (51.4)
 Vision or hearing
  No 287 (89.7) 330 (90.2) 389 (92.6) 1006 (91.0)
  Yes 33 (10.3) 36 (9.8) 31 (7.4) 100 (9.0)
 Urinary incontinence
  No 298 (93.1) 342 (93.4) 386 (91.9) 1026 (92.8)
  Yes 22 (6.9) 24 (6.6) 34 (8.1) 80 (7.2)
 Constipation
  No 308 (96.3) 348 (95.1) 404 (96.2) 1060 (95.8)
  Yes 12 (3.7) 18 (4.9) 16 (3.8) 46 (4.2)
 Asthma
  No 292 (91.3) 350 (95.6) 400 (95.2) 1042 (94.2)*
  Yes 28 (8.8) 16 (4.4) 20 (4.8) 64 (5.8)
 Heart disease
  No 289 (90.3) 327 (89.3) 373 (88.8) 989 (89.4)
  Yes 31 (9.7) 39 (10.7) 47 (11.2) 117 (10.6)
 Arthritis
  No 231 (72.2) 283 (77.3) 333 (79.3) 847 (76.6)
  Yes 89 (27.8) 83 (22.7) 87 (20.7) 259 (23.4)
 Stroke
  No 316 (29.0) 359 (98.1) 413 (98.3) 1088 (98.4)
  Yes 4 (1.3) 7 (1.9) 7 (1.7) 18 (1.6)
 Hypercholesterolemia
  No 220 (68.8) 219 (59.8) 265 (63.1) 704 (63.7)
  Yes 100 (31.2) 147 (40.2) 155 (36.9) 402 (36.3)
Anthropometry
 Body Mass Index, kg/m2 24.9 ± 4.3 25.0 ± 4.4 25.6 ± 4.4 25.2 ± 4.4
 BMI category
  Underweight 142 (45.7) 151 (41.8) 157 (38.0) 450 (41.5)*
  Normal 67 (21.5) 115 (31.9) 119 (28.8) 301 (27.7)
  Overweight 102 (32.8) 95 (26.3) 137 (33.2) 334 (30.8)
 Waist Hip Ratio 0.9 ± 0.1 0.9 ± 0.1 0.9 ± 0.1 0.9 ± 0.1
 Weight, kg 59.7 ± 11.9 62.1 ± 11.7 64.7 ± 12.5 62.4 ± 12.3***
 Height, cm 154.6 ± 8.1 157.6 ± 8.1 158.8 ± 8.8 157.2 ± 8.5***
 MUAC, cm 28.1 ± 3.3 28.7 ± 3.4 29.3 ± 3.6 28.7 ± 3.5***
 Waist Circumference, cm 88.1 ± 11.1 88.4 ± 10.7 90.1 ± 11.1 89.0 ± 11.0*
 Hip Circumference, cm 96.6 ± 9.1 97.5 ± 9.3 99.3 ± 9.0 97.9 ± 9.2***
 Calf Circumference, cm 33.1 ± 3.6 34.0 ± 3.5 35.0 ± 3.8 34.1 ± 3.8***
Cognitive
 Digit span 7.5 ± 2.6 8.0 ± 2.6 8.4 ± 2.5 8.0 ± 2.6***
 Best learning RAVLT 36.3 ± 10.5 38.1 ± 10.6 42.4 ± 10.8 39.2 ± 10.9***
 Digit symbol 4.5 ± 2.2 5.3 ± 2.6 7.0 ± 3.0 5.7 ± 2.8***
 MMSE 22.1 ± 5.3 23.6 ± 4.3 25.3 ± 3.7 23.8 ± 4.6***
 Immediate visual memory 39.7 ± 30.7 46.5 ± 33.9 60.6 ± 31.5 49.9 ± 33.2***
 Delayed visual memory 31.5 ± 33.0 40.2 ± 35.1 55.6 ± 36.3 43.6 ± 36.4***
Dietary Intake
 Protein, per  1000 kcal/day 43.8 ± 8.7 42.3 ± 8.2 41.4 ± 8.2 42.4 ± 8.4**
 Carbohydrate,per 1000 kcal/day 132.7 ± 21.2 136.7 ± 19.2 135.7 ± 20.4 135.2 ± 20.3
 Fat, per 1000 kcal/day 32.7 ± 8.4 31.6 ± 7.7 32.2 ± 7.4 32.2 ± 7.8
 SFA, per 1000 kcal/day 5.1 ± 3.3 5.1 ± 3.1 5.3 ± 3.1 5.1 ± 3.2
 Fibre, per 1000 kcal/day 2.5 ± 1.5 2.7 ± 1.8 3.0 ± 1.9 2.8 ± 1.8
 Sugar, per 1000 kcal/day 11.3 ± 8.8 13.5 ± 9.9 16.3 ± 11.4 14.0 ± 10.4
 Vitamin C, per 1000 kcal/day 76.2 ± 47.6 82.2 ± 59.6 76.2 ± 50.6 78.2 ± 53.0
 Vitamin E, per 1000 kcal/day 6.1 ± 26.9 7.4 ± 32.6 3.3 ± 3.5 5.5 ± 23.8
 Folate, per 1000 kcal/day 66.1 ± 44.6 72.1 ± 59.7 72.9 ± 44.1 70.7 ± 50.0
 Sodium, per 100 kcal/day 941.2 ± 711.7 863.5 ± 523 856.9 ± 461.3 883.5 ± 566.8
 Potassium, per 1000 kcal/day 915.6 ± 308.3 926.8 ± 317.3 944.6 ± 303.8 930.3 ± 309.6
 Calcium, per 1000 kcal/day 315.4 ± 137.8 333.9 ± 182.5 333.2 + 159.2 328.3 ± 161.7
Calorie restriction
 No 238 (76.5) 242 (68.0) 239 (58.4) 719 (66.8)***
 Yes 73 (23.5) 114 (32.0) 170 (41.6) 357 (33.2)
 Fresh fruits intake, (days/week) 3.5 ± 2.5 4.1 ± 2.5 4.8 ± 2.4 4.2 ± 2.5***
 Intake of salad or `ulam` (days/week) 6.0 ± 2.0 5.9 ± 2.1 6.2 ± 1.9 6.0 ± 2.0
Psychosocial
 Disability 5.6 ± 3.1 5.4 ± 2.9 5.2 ± 3.1 5.4 ± 3.0***
 Depression 3.2 ± 2.5 2.5 ± 2.3 2.3 ± 2.1 2.6 ± 2.3
 Loneliness 3.3 ± 1.1 3.2 ± 0.8 3.3 ± 1.0 3.3 ± 1.0
 Physical Fitness
 2 min step test, number 58.4 ± 25.6 62.0 ± 26.8 67.3 ± 25.9 63.0 ± 26.3***
 Grip strength, kg 22.0 ± 7.5 23.6 ± 7.6 25.0 ± 8.0 23.7 ± 7.8***
 Chair stand test, number 10.1 ± 3.1 10.5 ± 11.2 11.2 ± 3.1 10.6 ± 3.1***
 TUG, seconds 11.0 ± 2.9 10.2 ± 2.8 9.3 ± 2.5 10.0 ± 2.8***
 Chair sit and reach, cm 4.9 ± 12.8 3.6 ± 11.6 3.4 ± 11.2 3.9 ± 11.8
 Back scratch test, cm 15.7 ± 13.1 14.5 ± 12.3 12.7 ± 13.4 14.2 ± 13.0**
  1. Abbreviation: TUG Timed up and go test, MUAC Mid upper arm circumference, MMSE Mini Mental State Examination, RAVLT Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test
  2. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01;***p < 0.001