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Table 1 Parameters included in the study

From: Factors associated with poor socioeconomic status among Malaysian older adults: an analysis according to urban and rural settings

Socio-demography Name, address, identification card number, gender, ethnicity, education years, living arrangement, marital status, smoking, household income
Medical history Self-reported chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, arthritis, heart diseases, asthma, constipation, urinary incontinence, hearing or vision problem
Anthropometry Body mass index [15], waist circumference, calf circumference
Functional status Instrumental Activities of Daily Living [16], Activities of Daily Living [17]
Physical Fitness Timed up and go test, back scratch test, chair stand test, chair sit and reach test, 2 min step test [18]
Dietary intake Dietary history questionnaire for assessing habitual dietary habits [19]
Cognitive function Digit span for attention and working memory [20], digit symbol for processing speed [20], MMSE for global function [21], Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) for verbal memory [22], Visual Reproduction (VR) for visual memory [23]
Disability World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 [24]
Depressive symptoms Geriatric Depression Scale-15 [25]
Loneliness Three item loneliness scale [26]