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Table 3 Odds ratio for intelligence quotient (IQ) by sociodemographic characteristics and nutritional status

From: Low socioeconomic status and severe obesity are linked to poor cognitive performance in Malaysian children

  Unadjusted modela Adjusted modela
OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Income groupsb
 Below MYR1500 Low/borderline/below average 2.51* 1.47, 4.27 2.01* 1.16, 3.49
Average 2.27* 1.45, 3.54 1.95* 1.24, 3.06
High average/superior 1   1  
 MYR1500-MYR2299 Low/borderline/below average 1.34 0.78, 2.30 1.15 0.66, 2.01
Average 1.30 0.82, 2.07 1.18 0.74, 1.90
High average/superior 1   1  
 MYR2300-MYR5599 Low/borderline/below average 1.14 0.71, 1.84 1.06 0.65, 1.72
Average 1.44 0.99, 2.09 1.38 0.95, 2.02
High average/superior 1   1  
Paternal education levelc
 Non-schooling and primary school Low/borderline/below average 1.78 0.93, 3.43 2.38* 1.22, 4.62
Average 0.90 0.51, 1.60 1.11 0.63, 1.97
High average/superior 1   1  
 Secondary school Low/borderline/below average 1.42 0.93, 2.17 1.63* 1.06, 2.52
Average 1.01 0.73, 1.40 1.12 0.80, 1.55
High average/superior 1   1  
Maternal education levelc
 Non-schooling and primary school Low/borderline/below average 2.50* 1.25, 5.00 2.64* 1.32, 5.30
Average 2.07* 1.07, 4.02 2.12* 1.10, 4.08
High average/superior 1   1  
 Secondary school Low/borderline/below average 1.41 0.95, 2.10 1.34 0.89, 2.02
Average 1.63* 1.17, 2.28 1.55* 1.11, 2.17
High average/superior 1   1  
BAZ groupsd
 Thinness Low/borderline/below average 0.94 0.54, 1.64 0.79 0.45, 1.41
Average 1.23 0.74, 2.03 1.05 0.64, 1.73
High average/superior 1   1  
 Overweight Low/borderline/below average 1.44 0.92, 2.26 1.45 0.93, 2.27
Average 1.12 0.78, 1.62 1.08 0.74, 1.57
High average/superior 1   1  
 Obese Low/borderline/below average 1.32 0.83, 2.10 1.33 0.82, 2.17
Average 1.09 0.74, 1.60 1.06 0.69, 1.61
High average/superior 1   1  
 Severe obesity Low/borderline/below average 2.08* 1.14, 3.77 2.28* 1.23, 4.24
Average 1.21 0.70, 2.11 1.28 0.73, 2.24
High average/superior 1   1  
  1. *Significant odds ratio using complex sample logistic regression at p < 0.05
  2. aReference category of IQ groups is high average/superior. Sex, ethnicity, age and residence areas (rural/urban) were adjusted in the adjusted model
  3. bReference category of income groups is high income group (MYR5600 and above). ǂUSD 1 = MYR 4.1405 (as at 28 September 2018)
  4. cReference category of paternal and maternal education level is tertiary education level
  5. dReference category of BAZ groups is normal weight