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Table 2 Distribution (%) of children’s intelligence quotient (IQ) by sociodemographic characteristics and nutritional status categories

From: Low socioeconomic status and severe obesity are linked to poor cognitive performance in Malaysian children

  Low/borderline Below average Average High average Superior Likelihood ratio p value
Mean 95% CI Mean 95% CI Mean 95% CI Mean 95% CI Mean 95% CI
Sex
 Boys 10.1 8.3, 12.2 14.3 11.6, 17.5 38.0 34.5, 41.7 20.7 17.9, 23.7 16.9 14.5, 19.7 18.726 p < 0.05
 Girls 14.5 11.9, 17.6 13.1 10.6, 16.0 40.3 36.6, 44.1 15.9 13.5, 18.6 16.3 13.6, 19.3   
Age groups
 5.0–6.9 years 14.6 11.3, 18.7 11.9 9.2, 15.4 36.0 31.5, 40.7 19.4 15.9, 23.4 18.1 14.8, 22.0 37.301 p < 0.01
 7.0–9.9 years 12.4 10.1, 15.1 13.5 11.0, 16.5 36.2 32.3, 40.3 17.6 14.8, 20.9 20.2 17.1, 23.8   
 10.0–12.9 years 10.5 7.9, 13.8 15.0 11.4, 19.4 44.1 39.4, 48.9 18.4 15.3, 22.0 12.0 9.4, 15.2   
Residence
 Urban 11.9 10.0, 14.1 13.1 10.9, 15.6 38.8 35.8, 42.0 17.9 15.8, 20.3 18.2 16.0, 20.6 21.290 p < 0.01
 Rural 13.3 11.0, 16.1 16.2 12.9, 20.1 40.3 36.0, 44.7 20.0 16.5, 24.1 10.2 8.2, 12.7   
Income groups
 Below MYR1500 17.3 14.0, 21.1 17.5 13.6, 22.2 43.2 38.4, 48.1 13.9 11.2, 17.1 8.2 6.2, 10.7 151.781 p < 0.001
 MYR1500-MYR2299 12.9 9.3, 17.7 13.9 10.3, 18.5 37.9 32.0, 44.2 21.5 17.0, 26.9 13.8 10.4, 18.1   
 MYR2300-MYR5599 9.9 7.5, 13.0 10.9 8.4, 14.1 40.9 36.5, 45.5 18.7 15.6, 22.3 19.6 16.3, 23.3   
 MYR5600 and above 6.5 4.2, 10.1 11.8 7.9, 17.3 30.2 25.0, 35.9 22.1 17.3, 27.6 29.4 23.9, 35.7   
Paternal education level
 Non-schooling and primary school 17.7 11.9, 25.6 22.4 13.3, 35.3 36.4 27.2, 46.7 14.4 9.2, 21.7 9.1 5.4, 15.0 99.370 p < 0.001
 Secondary school 14.2 12.0, 16.7 13.6 11.5, 16.0 41.0 37.7, 44.3 17.4 15.2, 19.9 13.8 11.8, 16.0   
 Tertiary school 6.0 4.0, 8.7 11.3 8.2, 15.4 35.6 31.1, 40.4 21.7 18.0, 25.9 25.4 21.2, 30.1   
Maternal education level
 Non-schooling and primary school 21.8 14.4, 31.6 21.0 12.3, 33.4 37.9 27.7, 49.1 10.1 6.0, 16.5 9.3 4.9. 17.1 119.384 p < 0.001
 Secondary school 13.5 11.5, 15.9 13.7 11.5, 16.2 42.2 39.0, 45.5 17.1 14.9, 19.5 13.5 11.6, 15.7   
 Tertiary school 6.4 4.5, 9.0 11.9 8.7, 15.9 31.7 27.3, 36.5 23.8 19.9, 28.2 26.2 22.0, 30.9   
Ethnicity
 Malay 13.5 11.2, 16.2 16.1 13.3, 19.3 41.7 38.0, 45.5 15.5 13.0, 18.3 13.2 10.9, 16.0 117.651 p < 0.001
 Chinese 7.5 5.4, 10.2 8.2 6.0, 11.1 30.5 26.3, 35.1 25.3 21.3, 29.8 28.5 24.2, 33.2   
 Indian 17.6 12.1, 24.9 12.0 7.4, 19.0 45.2 35.5, 55.3 13.0 8.3, 19.7 12.1 6.8, 20.8   
 Others 10.9 7.3, 16.0 12.0 8.5, 16.6 37.3 32.2, 42.7 23.2 19.2, 27.7 16.6 13.1, 20.8   
BAZ groups
 Thinness 5.9 3.3, 10.3 18.1 11.7, 26.9 44.8 34.1, 56.1 16.6 11.0, 24.4 14.6 8.9, 22.8 43.447 p = 0.102
 Normal weight 12.5 10.6, 14.7 11.5 9.6, 13.8 39.3 36.2, 42.6 18.7 16.4, 21.3 17.9 15.7, 20.4   
 Overweight 14.9 10.6, 20.7 14.7 9.1, 23.0 38.2 31.3, 45.5 19.3 14.5, 25.2 12.9 8.9, 18.4   
 Obese 9.4 4.7, 17.6 19.4 13.0, 28.0 37.5 30.1, 45.5 19.9 14.5, 26.6 13.9 8.5, 21.8   
 Severe obesity 17.1 9.9, 28.0 19.0 11.4, 29.9 35.1 25.4, 46.2 10.1 5.6, 17.5 18.7 11.9, 28.3   
HAZ groups
 Stunted 16.4 9.9, 26.2 14.8 9.0, 23.4 36.6 26.4, 48.2 19.4 12.3, 29.1 12.8 7.7, 20.4 3.969 p = 0.656
 Normal height 11.9 10.3, 13.8 13.6 11.7, 15.8 39.3 36.6, 42.0 18.3 16.4, 20.4 16.8 15.0, 18.9   
  1. IQ categories: < 80, low/borderline; 80–90, below average; 90–109, average; 110–119, high average; ≥ 120, superior
  2. Other ethnic groups include Sarawak bumiputra, Sabah bumiputra, and other bumiputra
  3. ǂUSD 1 = MYR 4.1405 (as at 28 September 2018)