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Table 1 Sociodemographic characteristics, nutritional status and intelligence quotient (IQ) of children aged 5.0 to 12.9 years

From: Low socioeconomic status and severe obesity are linked to poor cognitive performance in Malaysian children

  Unweighted count (n) Estimated population Percentage (%) 95% CI Mean SE
All 2406 3,548,653     
Age (years)      9.0 0.1
Sex
 Boys 1201 1,823,998 51.4 48.7, 54.0   
 Girls 1205 1,724,655 48.6 46.0, 51.3   
Age groups
 5.0–6.9 years 631 865,374 24.3 22.3, 26.6   
 7.0–9.9 years 892 1,339,714 37.8 35.3, 40.3   
 10.0–12.9 years 883 1,343,566 37.9 35.2, 40.6   
Residence
 Urban 1440 2,833,601 79.9 78.0, 81.5   
 Rural 966 715,052 20.1 18.5, 22.0   
Income groups
 Below MYR1500 863 1,104,249 31.1 28.7, 33.7   
 MYR1500-MYR2299 434 707,382 19.9 17.8, 22.2   
 MYR2300-MYR5599 712 1,111,841 31.3 29.0, 33.8   
 MYR5600 and above 397 625,182 17.7 15.7, 19.7   
Paternal education level
 Non-schooling and primary school 221 281,450 7.9 6.5, 9.7   
 Secondary school 1577 2,290,524 64.6 62.0, 67.1   
 Tertiary school 608 976,680 27.5 25.2, 29.9   
Maternal education level
 Non-schooling and primary school 193 248,762 7.0 5.7, 8.7   
 Secondary school 1604 2,354,731 66.4 63.8, 68.8   
 Tertiary school 609 945,161 26.6 24.4, 29.0   
Ethnicity
 Malay 1148 2,098,763 59.1 56.6, 61.6   
 Chinese 593 682,464 19.2 17.5, 21.1   
 Indian 172 236,120 6.7 5.5, 8.0   
 Others 493 531,307 15.0 13.4, 16.6   
Anthropometry
 Weight (kg)      31.0 0.4
 Height (cm)      130.2 0.4
 Body mass index (BMI)(kg/m2)      17.6 0.1
 BMI-for-age Z-score (BAZ)      0.2 0.1
 Height-for-age Z-score (HAZ)      −0.4 0.1
Nutritional status
 Thinness 161 244,094 6.9 5.6, 8.5   
 Normal weight 1548 2,245,077 63.3 60.6, 65.8   
 Overweight 314 462,766 13.0 11.3, 15.0   
 Obese 270 423,983 11.9 10.2, 14.0   
 Severe obesity 113 172,734 4.9 3.9, 6.0   
 Stunted 158 213,483 6.0 4.9, 7.4   
Intelligence quotient (IQ)
 Low/borderline 324 433,580 12.2 10.6, 14.0   
 Below average 307 485,845 13.7 11.8, 15.8   
 Average 913 1,388,445 39.1 36.6, 41.8   
 High average 451 651,509 18.4 16.5, 20.4   
 Superior 411 589,275 16.6 14.8, 18.6   
  1. IQ categories: < 80, low/borderline; 80–90, below average; 90–109, average; 110–119, high average; ≥ 120, superior
  2. Other ethnic groups include Sarawak bumiputra, Sabah bumiputra, and other bumiputra
  3. ǂUSD 1 = MYR 4.1405 (as at 28 September 2018)