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Table 1 Differences in distribution explored of sociodemographic, socioeconomic, genetic, co-morbidities, anthropometric measurement, biochemical markers, lifestyle and environment factors among Malaysian women

From: Exploratory analysis of traditional risk factors of ischemic heart disease (IHD) among predominantly Malay Malaysian women

Variables Cases N = 142 (%) Controls N = 142 (%) Regresion coefficient (b) Crude OR 95% Confidence interval Wald Stats. p value
I. Sociodemographic & Socioeconomic Factors
 Age (years)a 52.56 (8.65) 52.27 (8.96) 0.01 1.004 0.977,1.031 0.08 0.782
 Educational level
  Low education 120 (84.5) 115 (81.0) 0.25 1.28 0.69,2.38 0.62 0.433
  [High education] 22 (15.5) 27 (19.0)      
 Economic Status (Income per capita)
  Low (≤ RM 685) 105 (73.9) 95 (66.9) 0.34 1.40 0.84,2.34 1.68 0.194
  [High (> RM 685)] 37 (26.1) 47 (33.1)      
 Occupation
 Non- professional 121 (85.2) 119 (83.8) 0.11 1.11 0.59,2.12 0.11 0.743
  [Professional] 21 (14.8) 23 (16.2)      
II. Genetic factors
 Family history of IHD
  Yes 60 (42.3) 37 (26.1) 0.73 2.08 1.26,3.43 8.16 0.004
 [No] 82 (57.7) 105 (73.9)      
III. Co-morbidities, Anthropometric measurement and biochemical markers
 Diabetes Mellitus
  Yes 57 (40.1) 34 (23.9) 0.76 2.13 1.28,3.55 8.41 0.004
  [No] 85 (59.9) 108 (76.1)      
 Hypertension
  Yes 90 (63.4) 72 (50.7) 0.52 1.69 1.05,2.70 4.63 0.031
  [No] 52 (36.6) 70 (49.3)      
 Autoimmune Disease
  Yes 4 (2.8) 1 (0.7) 1.41 4.09 0.45,37.03 1.57 0.211
  [No] 138 (97.2) 141 (99.3)      
 Migraine
  Yes 32 (22.5) 26 (18.3) 0.26 1.30 0.73,2.32 0.78 0.378
  [No] 110 (77.5) 116 (81.7)      
 Waist circumferencea 90.1 (14.5) 87.9 (12.7) 0.02 1.02 1.00, 1.04 4.80 0.029
 Obesity (BMI)
  Obese 43 (30.3) 35 (24.6) 0.28 1.33 0.79,2.24 1.12 0.288
  [Non obese] 99 (69.7) 107 (75.4)      
 LDL-Cholesterol level (mmol/L)a 3.65 (1.38) 3.88 (1.09) −0.15 0.86 0.71,1.04 2.41 0.121
 HDL-Cholesterol level (Category)(mmol/L)
  Low HDL (<  1.0) 21 (14.8) 7 (4.9) 1.26 3.34 1.46,8.57 7.82 0.005
  [High HDL (≥1.0)] 121 (85.2) 135 (95.1)      
IV. Life style factor
 Dietary Intake (Fat)
  High 31 (21.8) 25 (17.6) 0.27 1.31 0.73,2.35 0.80 0.372
  [Low] 111 (78.2) 117 (82.4)      
 Physical activity
  Low 39 (27.5) 29 (20.4) 0.39 1.48 0.85,2.56 1.92 0.166
  [High] 103 (72.5) 113 (79.6)      
 Stress
  Yes 49 (34.5) 42 (29.6) 0.23 1.25 0.76,2.07 0.79 0.374
  [No] 93 (65.5) 100 (70.4)      
 Smoking
  Yes 3 (2.1) 1 (0.7) 1.11 3.02 0.31;29.20 0.91 0.341
  [No] 139 (97.9) 140 (98.6)      
V. Environment factors
 Passive smoking     
  Yes 91 (64.1) 53 (37.3) 1.10 3.00 1.85,4.85 19.84 <  0.001
  [No] 51 (35.9) 89 (62.7)      
  1. amean (± sd); [] reference group
  2. Bold indicate p<0.05