Skip to main content

Table 5 Blood pressure and blood chemistry by status of diagnosis of hypertension (HPN), hypercholesterolemia (HPC) and diabetes mellitus (DM) according to household income levels

From: Non-communicable diseases among low income adults in rural coastal communities in Eastern Sabah, Malaysia

  Hardcore poor Poor Above PLI p valueA,B
N Mean ± S.D. p valuea,b N Mean±S.D. p valuea,b N Mean±S.D. P valuea,b
Systolic BP (mmHg) No HPN 161 118.5±11.2aA < 0.001 33 117.5±10.1aA < 0.001 28 118.5±12.5aA < 0.001 0.883
Known HPN 13 140.8±19.9bA   4 133.5±19.0bA   10 159.6±30.4bA   0.113
Unknown HPN 65 155.4±18.9cA   10 147.2±6.7cA   6 157.3±14.7bA   0.371
Diastolic BP (mmHg) No HPN 161 71.8±8.1aA < 0.001 33 72.9±7.8aA 0.010 28 71.3±8.8aA < 0.001 0.686
Known HPN 13 83.7±12.9bA   4 81.3±11.6aA   10 88.2±12.5bA   0.574
Unknown HPN 65 86.6±9.0bA   10 81.9±9.9aA   6 90.2±11.4bA   0.195
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) No HPC 138 4.3±0.6aA < 0.001 29 4.3±0.5A < 0.001 23 4.2±0.6aA < 0.001 0.858
Known HPC 2 4.8±0.9a   1 8.1   3 6.4±0.6b   0.068
Unknown HPC 99 6.2±0.8b   17 5.9±0.5A   18 6.2±0.8bA   0.319
HDL-C (mmol/L) No HPC 138 1.2±0.2aA 0.004 29 1.3±0.2A 0.070 23 1.3±0.3aA 0.774 0.390
Known HPC 2 1.3±0.1a   1 1.4   3 1.3±0.2a   0.867
Unknown HPC 99 1.3±0.3aA   17 1.5±0.3A   18 1.3±0.2aA   0.164
LDL-C (mmol/L) No HPC 138 2.5±0.5aA < 0.001 29 2.5±0.4A < 0.001 22 2.5±0.6aA < 0.001 0.228
Known HPC 2 3.0±0.7a   1 5.6   3 4.2±0.6b   0.806
Unknown HPC 98 4.1±0.7bA   17 3.8±0.5A   18 4.1±0.6bA   0.124
Trg (mmol/L) No HPC 138 1.2±0.6aA < 0.001 29 1.1±0.5A 0.025 23 1.1±1.0aA 0.045 0.817
Known HPC 2 1.1±0.3a   1 2.5   3 2.1±0.4a   0.096
Unknown HPC 99 1.8±1.0aA   17 1.4±0.6A   18 1.8±0.8aA   0.367
FBG (mmol/L) No DM 221 5.0±0.7aA < 0.001 44 4.8±0.7A < 0.001 41 4.7±0.6A < 0.001 0.006
Known DM 3 5.1±0.6a   1 12.2   1 19.7   0.005
Unknown DM 15 11.2±4.5bA   2 15.7±6.6A   2 10.8±4.6A   0.446
  1. a,bDifferent superscripts within the same column denote significant difference between NCD status (p < 0.05) for each blood chemistry. The group sizes are unequal. Type I error levels might occur for the ANOVA
  2. A, B Different superscripts within the same row denote significant difference between household income levels (p < 0.05) for each blood chemistry. The group sizes are unequal. Type I error levels might occur for the ANOVA