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Table 2 Prevalence of hypertension (HPN), hypercholesterolemia (HPC) and diabetes mellitus (DM) by socio-demography of respondents

From: Non-communicable diseases among low income adults in rural coastal communities in Eastern Sabah, Malaysia

Risk factors Hypertension, N (row %) Chi-square/p-value Hypercholesterolemia, N (row %) Chi-square/p-value Diabetes Mellitus, N (row %) Chi-square/p-value
HPN (n = 108) Non-HPN (n = 222) HPC (n = 140) Non-HPC (n = 190) DM (n = 24) Non-DM (n = 306)
N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%)
Sex 0.133/   0.303/   0.523/
 Men 42 (31.6) 91 (68.4) 0.715 54 (40.6) 79 (59.4) 0.582 8 (6.0) 125 (94.0) 0.524
 Women 66 (33.5) 131 (66.5) 86 (43.7) 111 (56.3) 16 (8.1) 181 (91.9)
Age group (years) 32.226/   21.754/   13.058/
 19–29 9 (11.2) 71 (88.8) < 0.001 16 (20.0) 64 (80.0) < 0.001 0 (0.0) 80 (100.0) 0.001
 30–59 75 (35.5) 136 (64.5) 105 (49.8) 106 (50.2) 17 (8.1) 194 (91.9)
  ≥ 60 24 (61.5) 15 (38.5) 19 (48.7) 20 (51.3) 7 (17.9) 32 (82.1)
Educational level 32.218/   34.319/   5.237/
 No formal education 47 (56.6) 36 (43.4) < 0.001 56 (67.5) 27 (32.5) < 0.001 9 (10.8) 74 (89.2) 0.264
 Primary school 21 (32.3) 44 (67.7) 26 (40.0) 39 (60.0) 5 (7.7) 60 (92.3)
 Secondary school 37 (23.4) 121 (76.6) 52 (32.9) 106 (67.1) 10 (6.3) 148 (93.7)
 High School Certificate/Diploma 2 (12.5) 14 (87.5) 2 (12.5) 14 (87.5) 0 (0.0) 16 (100.0)
 Bachelor’s degree 1 (12.5) 7 (87.5) 4 (50.0) 4 (50.0) 0 (0.0) 8 (100.0)
Marital status 19.410/   21.696/   8.725/
 Single 12 (15.6) 65 (84.4) < 0.001 18 (23.4) 59 (76.6) < 0.001 1 (1.3) 76 (98.7) 0.033
 Married 76 (35.2) 140 (64.8) 100 (46.3) 116 (53.7) 18 (8.3) 198 (91.7)
 Divorced/Separated 1 (50.0) 1 (50.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (100.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (100.0)
 Widow/Widower 19 (54.3) 16 (45.7) 22 (62.9) 13 (37.1) 5 (14.3) 30 (85.7)
Occupation 11.521/   11.494/   3.375/
 Unemployed 11 (17.5) 52 (82.5) 0.009 15 (23.8) 48 (76.2) 0.009 2 (3.2) 61 (96.8) 0.337
 Housewife 56 (38.9) 88 (61.1) 70 (48.6) 74 (51.4) 12 (8.3) 132 (91.7)
 Self-employed 31 (30.4) 71 (69.6) 46 (45.1) 56 (54.9) 6 (5.9) 96 (94.1)
 Employed 10 (47.6) 11 (52.4) 9 (42.9) 12 (57.1) 1 (4.8) 20 (95.2)
Household income (RM/month) 0.450/   0.837/   0.095/
 Hardcore poor 78 (32.6) 161 (67.4) 0.799 101 (42.3) 138 (57.7) 0.658 18 (7.5) 221 (92.5) 0.954
 Poor 14 (29.8) 33 (70.2) 18 (38.3) 29 (61.7) 3 (6.4) 44 (93.6)
 Above PLI 16 (36.4) 28 (63.6) 21 (47.7) 23 (52.3) 3 (12.5) 41 (93.2)
Household size (People) 0.035/   0.724/   0.360/
 1–5 43 (33.3) 86 (66.7) 0.851 51 (39.5) 78 (60.5) 0.395 8 (6.2) 121 (93.8) 0.666
  ≥ 6 65 (32.3) 136 (67.7) 89 (44.3) 112 (55.7) 16 (8.0) 185 (92.0)
Smoking status 0.043/ 0.836   1.832/ 0.176   1.372/ 0.334
 Smoker 13 (34.2) 25 (65.8) 20 (52.9) 18 (47.4) 1 (2.6) 37 (97.4)
 Non/Ex-smoker 95 (32.5) 197 (67.5) 120 (41.1) 172 (58.9) 23 (7.9) 269 (92.1)