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Table 3 Results of the second factor analysis on the refuse-to-take items. Means and standard deviations. Cronbach’s alpha. Only four items for each factor – the ones with the highest loadings – are shown

From: Why patients want to take or refuse to take antibiotics: an inventory of motives

Items Factors
One of the reasons why I refused to take antibiotics was that … . I II III IV M SD
... I wished, by prolonging my illness, that people keep being considerate to me. .92 .04 .13 .05 4.08 4.81
... being ill was an opportunity to have company. .88 .05 .17 .05 3.74 4.45
... I wished, by being ill, to keep being cared by my relatives. .88 .04 .11 .11 3.68 4.35
... by keeping being ill, I could obtain important benefits. .85 .01 .19 .05 4.27 4.83
… the abuse of antibiotics eases the process of bacterial resistance. .28 .84 .25 .16 7.94 5.21
... the development of bacterial resistance constitutes a threat for future generations. .06 .81 .18 −.10 5.80 4.78
... I feared that the taking of antibiotics would reduce, in the long term, my natural defenses. .04 .77 .15 .28 7.38 5.02
... I had learned that irresponsible taking of antibiotics facilitated mutations among bacteria, which consequences were unpredictable. .08 .73 .03 .19 5.40 4.54
... I thought that my organism was able to defend itself alone. .12 .34 .80 .28 8.05 4.92
... I considered that medicines were not needed for recovering. .18 .09 .79 .09 7.79 5.15
... I considered that the illness was not severe enough. .12 .24 .66 .30 8.75 5.10
... I was not confident in the prescribing physician. .20 .21 .16 .73 4.75 4.56
... another physician had told me not to take them. .13 .26 −.00 .64 5.43 4.77
... I disagreed with the physician’s opinion. .30 .26 .25 .63 5.59 4.61
... in general, I don’t trust physicians. .32 .28 .23 .62 4.54 4.32
Explained variance 12.14 4.94 3.52 3.03   
Percentage of explained variance .34 .14 .10 .08   
M 3.94 6.41 8.92 5.09   
SD 4.27 3.87 3.77 3.61   
Mean score > 8 83 138 264 90   
Cronbach’s alpha .94 .86 .81 .80   
  1. I = Secondary gain, II = Bacterial resistance, III = Self-defense, IV = Lack of trust