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Table 2 Patient characteristics and pathogens associated with fatality in adults aged ≥18 years hospitalized with acute respiratory infection (ARI) in Guatemala from September 2007 through December 2013 (N = 1517)

From: Factors associated with fatal cases of acute respiratory infection (ARI) among hospitalized patients in Guatemala

Variable Fatal (n = 181) n (%) Non-fatal (n = 1336) n (%) Crude OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Age at admission in years, median (IQR) 57 (39–74) 57 (39–71) 1.0 (1.0–1.0)
Male sex 93/181 (51) 570/1336 (43) 1.4 (1.0–1.9) 1.8 (1.2–2.7)
Family monthly income <Q1000 96/181 (53) 834/1336 (62) 0.7 (0.5–0.9)
Amerindian Indigenous 78/181 (43) 471/1336 (35) 1.4 (1.0–1.9)
Hospital Site
 Quetzaltenango 110/181 (61) 655/1336 (49) 1.6 (1.2–2.2)
 Santa Rosa 71/181 (39) 681/1336 (51) Reference  
High crowding index (> 3 persons/room) 44/181 (24) 322/1336 (24) 1.0 (0.7–1.4)
Patient completed primary school 60/180 (33) 396/1334 (30) 1.2 (0.8–1.6)
History of smoking 20/177 (11) 151/1331 (11) 1.2 (0.8–1.8)
Sought care prior to hospitalization 88/179 (49) 542/1335 (41) 1.4 (1.0–1.9)
Received influenza vaccine in past 6 months 6/156 (4) 33/1188 (3) 1.4 (0.5–3.2)
Low body mass index (< 18.5 kg/m2) 143/181 (79) 661/1336 (49) 3.8 (2.7–5.7) 3.4 (2.1–5.7)
Medical history
 Any chronic disease 99/180 (55) 666/1336 (50) 1.2 (0.9–1.7)
 Hypertension 48/167 (29) 268/1303 (21) 1.6 (1.1–2.2)
 Diabetes 31/174 (18) 182/1325 (14) 1.4 (0.9–2.0)
 Kidney disease 26/174 (15) 79/1320 (6) 2.8 (1.7–4.4) 2.4 (1.3–4.3)
 Heart disease 21/174 (12) 86/1320 (7) 2.0 (1.2–3.2)
 Chronic pulmonary disease 13/174 (7) 105/1320 (8) 0.9 (0.5–1.6)
 Asthma 9/176 (5) 137/1327 (10) 0.5 (0.2–0.9)
 Liver disease 9/174 (5) 24/1321 (2) 2.9 (1.3–6.2)
 HIV 8/166 (5) 22/1296 (2) 2.9 (1.2–6.4)
 Cancer 3/175 (2) 20/1324 (2) 1.1 (0.3–3.4)
End-point pneumonia 73/117 (62) 335/833 (40) 2.5 (1.7–3.7) 1.9 (1.3–2.9)
Pathogens detected by NP/OP swab
 NP/OP swab tested 176/177 (99) 1292/1292 (100)   
 Any viral detectiona 51/176 (29) 343/1292 (27) 1.1 (0.8–1.6)
 Influenza Aa 18/176 (10) 116/1292 (9) 1.2 (0.7–1.9)
 Adenovirusa 12/176 (7) 62/1292 (5) 1.5 (0.7–2.7)
 Respiratory syncytial virusa 11/176 (6) 87/1292 (7) 0.9 (0.5–1.7)
 Parainfluenza 1/2/3a 11/176 (6) 62/1292 (5) 1.3 (0.7–2.5)
 Human metapneumovirusa 3/176 (2) 25/1292 (2) 0.9 (0.2–2.5)
 Influenza Ba 1/176 (0.6) 22/1292 (2) 0.3 (0.02–1.6)
Pathogens detected by blood culture
 Blood culture performed 47/181 (26) 284/1336 (21)   
 Evidence of contaminationa 1/47 (2) 8/284 (3) 0.8 (0.04–4.2)
 Any growtha 13/47 (28) 38/284 (13) 2.5 (1.2–5.0)
Streptococcus pneumoniaea 3/47 (6) 11/284 (4) 1.7 (0.4–5.7)
Staphylococcus aureusa 2/47 (4) 3/284 (1) 4.2 (0.5–25.8)
Pseudomonas aeruginosaa 0/47 (0) 1/284 (0.4)
Pathogens detected by urine antigen testing
 Urine antigen testing conducted 134/163 (82) 1076/1188 (91)   
Streptococcus pneumoniaea 16/134 (12) 147/1076 (14) 0.9 (0.5–1.4)
Viral co-infection with S. pneumoniaea, b 5/178 (3) 50/1322 (4) 1.4 (0.6–4.0)
  1. aAmong those tested
  2. bResults from blood culture and urine antigen testing combined