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Table 2 Hazard ratios by FEV category for mortality by cause and incidence for cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease in 22662 men and women in the EPIC-Norfolk 1993-2015

From: FEV1 and total Cardiovascular mortality and morbidity over an 18 years follow-up Population-Based Prospective EPIC-NORFOLK Study

  Respiratory function FEV1 category (cL/s)   
Quintile <229 229 to <272 272 to < 309 309 to < 353 ≥ 353 HR(95% CI) per 70 cL/s increase P-linear trend
Men
 Deaths: all causes % (n) 35.8 (1108) 25.7 (794) 18.7 (579) 12.7 (394) 7.1 (221)   <0.001
 HR (95% CI) a 1 0.69(0.63,0.75) 0.60(0.54,0.66) 0.55(0.49,0.62) 0.48(0.41,0.56) 0.72(0.69,0.75) <0.001
HR (95% CI) b 1 0.74(0.67,0.82) 0.69(0.61.77) 0.66(0.58,0.76) 0.63(0.52,0.76) 0.77(0.73,0.81) <0.001
 Deaths from cardiovascular causes % (n) 37.5 (359) 29.2 (279) 16.3 (156) 12.1 (116) 4.9 (47)   <0.001
 HR (95% CI) a 1 0.77(0.66,0.9) 0.54(0.44,0.65) 0.57(0.46,0.72) 0.39(0.28,0.54) 0.70(0.65,0.76) <0.001
 HR (95% CI) b 1 0.89(0.75,1.06) 0.67(0.54,0.84) 0.75(0.58,0.97) 0.64(0.44,0.92) 0.80(0.73,0.88) <0.001
 Deaths from myocardial infarction causes % (n) 35.1 (191) 29.5 (161) 15.2 (83) 14.1 (77) 6.1 (33)   <0.001
 HR (95% CI) a 1 0.84(0.68,1.04) 0.54(0.41,0.70) 0.71(0.53,0.94) 0.50(0.33,0.75) 0.75(0.68,0.83) <0.001
 HR (95% CI) b 1 0.99(0.78,1.26) 0.70(0.52,0.94) 0.97(0.70,1.35) 0.90(0.57,1.42) 0.88(0.78,1.00) 0.05
 Deaths from stroke causes % (n) 33.7 ( 68) 31.7 (64) 19.8 (40) 12.3 (25) 2.5 (5)   <0.001
 HR (95% CI) a 1 0.91(0.65,1.28) 0.72(0.48,1.08) 0.66(0.41,1.08) 0.24(0.09,0.61) 0.73(0.62,0.86) 0.027
 HR (95% CI) b 1 0.97(0.66,1.42) 0.78(0.49,1.23) 0.78(0.45,1.37) 0.38(0.14,1.04) 0.78(0.64,0.95) 0.015
 Deaths from respiratory disease causes %(n) 62.4 (184) 17.6 (52) 12.5 (37) 5.1 (15) 2.4 (7)   <0.001
 HR (95% CI) a 1 0.27(0.20,0.37) 0.24(0.17,0.35) 0.14(0.08,0.25) 0.12(0.05,0.26) 0.32(0.28,0.36) <0.001
 HR (95% CI) b 1 0.33(0.23,0.46) 0.29(0.19,0.43) 0.20(0.11,0.35) 0.19(0.08,0.43) 0.35(0.30,0.41) <0.001
 Cardiovascular disease events %(n) 28.5 (1028) 23.9 (863) 21.1 (760) 15.9 (576) 10.6 (384)   <0.001
 HR (95% CI) a 1 0.78(0.71,0.85) 0.73(0.66,0.80) 0.64(0.57,0.71) 0.51(0.45,0.58) 0.80(0.77,0.83) <0.001
HR (95% CI) b 1 0.82(0.74,0.91) 0.81(0.72,0.90) 0.73(0.64,0.82) 0.63(0.54,0.73) 0.85(0.81,0.89) <0.001
 Myocardial infarction events % (n) 30.6(528) 25.0(431) 19.7 (340) 15.9 (275) 8.8 (152)   <0.001
 HR (95% CI) a 1 0.78(0.69,0.89) 0.66(0.58,0.76) 0.63(0.54,0.74) 0.42(0.34,0.51) 0.77(0.73,0.81) <0.001
 HR (95% CI) b 1 0.85(0.74,0.98) 0.78(0.67,0.91) 0.79(0.66,0.95) 0.58(0.46,0.73) 0.85(0.79,0.91) 0.001
 Stroke events % (n) 34.7 (157) 28.0 (127) 16.8 (76) 12.8 (58) 7.7 (35)   <0.001
 HR (95% CI) a 1 0.86(0.68,1.08) 0.62(0.47,0.82) 0.66(0.48,0.92) 0.64(0.43,0.97) 0.79(0.71,0.88) 0.008
 HR (95% CI) b 1 0.98(0.75.1.28) 0.78(0.57,1.08) 0.86(0.59,1.26) 0.99(0.96,1.02) 0.90(0.79,1.03) 0.13
 Respiratory disease events %(n) 41.3 (669) 22.0 (357) 16.7 (271) 11.5 (186) 8.5 (138)   <0.001
 HR (95% CI) a 1 0.46(0.40,0.52) 0.34(0.29,0.39) 0.25(0.21,0.30) 0.21(0.17,0.26) 0.51(0.48,0.54) <0.001
 HR (95% CI) b 1 0.48(0.41,0.55) 0.37(0.32,0.44) 0.28(0.23,0.33) 0.26(0.18,0.28) 0.52(0.49,0.55) <0.001
  Respiratory function FEV1 category (cL/s)   
Quintile <170 170 to <200 200 to < 227 227 to < 257 ≥ 257 HR(95%CI) per 70 cL/s increase P-linear trend
Women
 Deaths: all causes % (n),2758 42.1 (1161) 25.0 (688) 16.6 (459) 9.6 (266) 6.7 (184)   <0.001
 HR (95% CI) a 1 0.68(0.63,0.75) 0.62(0.55,0.69) 0.51(0.44,0.59) 0.55(0.46,0.66) 0.65(0.61,0.69) <0.001
 HR (95% CI) b 1 0.71(0.64,0.80) 0.65(0.57,0.74) 0.57(0.48,0.67) 0.62(0.51,0.76) 0.68(0.63,0.74) <0.001
 Deaths from cardiovascular causes % (n) 47.1(376) 27.7 (221) 16.5 (132) 5.9 (47) 2.8 (22)   <0.001
 HR (95% CI) a 1 0.73(0.61,0.86) 0.67(0.55,0.82) 0.39(0.29,0.54) 0.35(0.22,0.55) 0.65(0.57,0.73) <0.001
 HR (95% CI) b 1 0.76(0.63,0.92) 0.73(0.57,0.92) 0.50(0.36,0.71) 0.40(0.24,0.67) 0.67(0.58,0.78) <0.001
 Deaths from myocardial infarction causes %(n) 48.3 (146) 27.2 (82) 16.9 (51) 5.6 (17) 2.0(6)   <0.001
 HR (95% CI) a 1 0.69(0.52,0.89) 0.63(0.45,0.88) 0.33(0.20,0.56) 0.21(0.09,0.49) 0.56(0.46,0.67) <0.001
 HR (95% CI) b 1 0.77(0.57,1.04) 0.67(0.45,0.99) 0.46(0.26,0.81) 0.27(0.10,0.72) 0.60(0.47,0.75) <0.001
 Deaths from stroke causes %(n) 43.5 (133) 30.4 (93) 16.7 (51) 6.5 (20) 2.9 (9)   <0.001
 HR (95% CI) a 1 0.88(0.68,1.15) 0.79(0.57,1.11) 0.54(0.33,0.89) 0.51(0.25,1.04) 0.81(0.67,0.99) 0.08
 HR (95% CI) b 1 0.89(0.65,1.21) 0.86(0.59,1.27) 0.66(0.39,1.13) 0.55(0.25,1.21) 0.85(0.67,1.08) 0.18
 Deaths from respiratory disease causes %(n) 61.1 (149) 20.9(51) 11.0 (27) 4.9 (12) 2.1 (5)   <0.001
 HR (95% CI) a 1 0.39(0.28,0.54) 0.29(0.19,0.44) 0.19(0.10,0.35) 0.13(0.05,0.33) 0.28(0.23,0.35) <0.001
 HR (95% CI) b 1 0.43(0.30,0.62) 0.39(0.25,0.62) 0.26(0.13,0.51) 0.24(0.09,0.63) 0.35(0.27,0.44) <0.001
 Cardiovascular disease events %(n) 33.8 (1206) 25.9 (924) 18.6 (664) 12.6 (446) 9.1 (325)   <0.001
 HR (95% CI) a 1 0.83(0.76,0.91) 0.68(0.62,0.75) 0.54(0.48,0.61) 0.50(0.43,0.57) 0.72(0.68,0.76) <0.001
 HR (95% CI) b 1 0.85(0.77,0.94) 0.75(0.67,0.84) 0.64(0.56,0.73) 0.58(0.49,0.68) 0.77(0.72,0.83) <0.001
 Myocardial infarction events %(n) 39.7 (429) 26.9(291) 17.8 (192) 8.8 (95) 6.8 (74)   <0.001
 HR (95% CI) a 1 0.79(0.68,0.92) 0.67(0.56,0.80) 0.43(0.34,0.54) 0.47(0.35,0.62) 0.69(0.63,0.76) <0.001
 HR (95% CI) b 1 0.79(0.67,0.94) 0.70(0.57,0.85) 0.48(0.37,0.63) 0.59(0.43,0.81) 0.74(0.66,0.83) <0.001
 Stroke events %(n) 46.7 (233) 25.9 (129) 15.4 (77) 7.4 (37) 4.6 (23)   <0.001
 HR (95% CI) a 1 0.69(0.56,0.86) 0.62(0.47,0.81) 0.46(0.31,0.66) 0.47(0.29,0.76) 0.71(0.61,0.82) <0.001
 HR (95% CI) b 1 0.68(0.53,0.88) 0.67(0.49,0.91) 0.51(0.34,0.77) 0.48(0.28,0.83) 0.74(0.62,0.89) 0.001
 Respiratory disease events %(n) 40.3 (665) 23.1 (382) 16.2 (268) 11.9 (196) 8.5 (141)   <0.001
 HR (95% CI) a 1 0.55(0.41,0.63) 0.39(0.38,0.46) 0.30(0.25,0.36) 0.23(0.19,0.28) 0.43(0.40,0.47) <0.001
 HR (95% CI) b 1 0.54(0.47,0.62) 0.40(0.34,0.47) 0.29(0.24,0.36) 0.21(0.16,0.26) 0.42(0.38,0.46) <0.001
  1. aModel 1: adjusting for age
  2. bModel 2: adjustment for BMI, cigarette-smoking habit, alcohol intake, physical activity, height, education level, plasma vitamin C, social class, self-reported diabetes, respiratory disease, systolic blood pressure and plasma total cholesterol