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Table 1 Characteristics of 10,168 men and 12,494 women aged 40-79 years without prevalent heart disease, stroke, or cancer, by quintile of FEV1 in the EPIC-Norfolk, United Kingdom, recruited between 1993-1997

From: FEV1 and total Cardiovascular mortality and morbidity over an 18 years follow-up Population-Based Prospective EPIC-NORFOLK Study

Clinical variables Unit Respiratory function FEV1 category (cL/s) P*
Quintile   <229 229 to <272 272 to < 309 309 to < 353 ≥ 353  
Men (%, n) 100, 10168 18.3, 1857 19.3, 1959 20.5, 2087 20.6, 2097 21.3, 2168  
 Mean respiratory function FEV1 (cL/s) 293.7±73.9 184.1± 39.6 252.0±12.1 291.2±10.9 330.7±12.7 392.0±31.5 <0.001
 Mean age (year) 58.9±9.3 66.0± 7.9 62.9±8.5 59.3±8.5 56.0±7.8 51.9±6.2 <0.001
 Mean Height (cm) 174.2±6.7 170.7±6.5 1712.0±6.2 173.7±6.1 175.5±6.0 178.3±5.8 <0.001
 Mean systolic BP (mm Hg) 137.2±17.5 142.8± 19.0 140.8±17.7 137.5±17.8 134.9±15.8 131.1±14.9 <0.001
 Mean alcohol (units/week) 10.4±11.9 9.4± 11.9 10.1±12.2 9.9±11.5 11.0±12.1 11.5±11.6 0.411
 Mean BMI (kg/m2) 26.5±3.3 26.8± 3.7 27.0±3.3 26.5±3.3 26.3±3.1 26.0±3.1 <0.001
 Mean plasma vitamin C (umol/l) 47.4±18.7 42.7± 20.0 45.3±18.2 47.9±18.6 49.1±17.6 51.0±18.2 <0.001
 Mean serum cholesterol (mmol/L) 6.0±1.1 6.1±1.1 6.1±1.1 6.1±1.0 6.1±1.1 5.9±1.1 0.897
 Physically inactive [% (n)] 29.3(2982) 43.7 (812) 33.2(650) 27.4(571) 24.1(506) 20.4(443) <0.001
 Manual social class [% (n)] 41.6(4160) 48.3 (870) 45.6(877) 42.8(877) 38.9(805) 34.1(731) <0.001
 No educational qualification [% (n)] 29.5(3001) 44.2 (819) 34.6(678) 29.7(620) 24.9(521) 16.8(363) <0.001
 Current smokers [% (n)] 12.5(1261) 17.7 (327) 12.8(249) 13.2(273) 11.6(242) 7.9(170) <0.001
 History of diabetes [% (n)] 2.7 (271) 4.0 (74) 4.0(79) 2.6(54) 2.1(45) 0.9(19) <0.001
 History of asthma [% (n)] 7.7(787) 17.1 (318) 7.9(154) 6.2(129) 4.9 (102) 3.9(84) <0.001
 History of bronchitis [% (n)] 8.7(886) 16.2 (300) 8.1(159) 6.9(143) 6.7(140) 6.6(144) <0.001
 Clinical variables Unit Respiratory function FEV1 category (cL/s) P*
 Quintile   <170 170 to <200 200 to < 227 227 to < 257 ≥ 257  
Women (%, n) 100, 12494 19.6, 2449 19.3, 2413 20.2, 2528 20.4, 2555 20.4, 2549  
 Mean respiratory function FEV1(cL/s) 214.4±52.0 139.9 ± 26.6 186.3±8.7 213.9±7.8 241.7±8.5 285.4±23.0 <0.001
 Mean age (year) 58.5±9.3 66.1± 7.7 62.6±8.5 58.4±8.3 54.8±7.4 51.2±6.1 <0.001
 Mean Height (cm) 161.0±6.2 157.6±6.0 159.2±5.5 160.8±5.5 162.2±5.5 165.1±5.5 <0.001
 Mean systolic BP(mm Hg) 133.6±18.8 142.5± 19.9 137.9±19.3 133.3±17.4 129.5±16.9 125.4±15.6 <0.001
 Mean alcohol (units/week) 4.5±5.7 3.7±5.3 3.9±5.1 4.5±5.8 4.9±5.9 5.5±6.1 <0.001
 Mean BMI (kg/m2) 26.2±4.3 26.9±4.5 26.8±4.6 26.3±4.3 25.9±4.2 25.1±3.8 <0.001
 Mean vitamin C (umol/l) 58.6±19.9 54.5±21.0 57.6±20.3 58.8±19.9 59.9±19.6 61.8±17.8 <0.001
 Mean cholesterol (mmol/L) 6.3±1.2 6.7±1.2 6.5±1.2 6.4±1.2 6.2±1.2 5.8±1.1 <0.001
 Physical inactive [% (n)] 29.5(3687) 46.3 (1134) 36.1 (871) 26.3 (664) 22.2 (568) 17.7 (450) 0.005
 Manual social class [% (n)] 38.9(4738) 44.8 (1045) 42.6 (997) 39.7 (977) 35.6 (893) 32.7 (826) <0.001
 No educational qualification [% (n)] 41.7(5205) 58.0 (1419) 49.9 (1204) 42.9 (1083) 34.6 (885) 24.1 (614) <0.001
 Current smokers [% (n)] 11.5(1426) 14.1 (341) 12.0 (286) 11.0 (275) 11.3 (287) 9.3 (237) <0.001
 History of diabetes [% (n)] 1.4(180) 2.2 (55) 2.1(50) 1.5 (38) 0.9 (23) 0.5 (14) <0.001
 History of asthma [% (n)] 9.0(1120) 16.5 (404) 8.7(209) 7.7 (194) 6.4 (164) 5.8 (149) <0.001
 History of bronchitis [% (n)] 9.5(1190) 13.9. (340) 9.4 (226) 8.6 (217) 8.3 (212) 7.7 (195) <0.001
  1. *P-value is the association between FEV1 in category with the clinical variables based on ANOVA or chi-square test
  2. †BP blood pressure; BMI, body mass index; SD, standard deviation; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 second; § Weight (kg)/height (m)2
  3. # Self-reported doctor-diagnosed condition