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Table 3 Non-spatial correlation (Pearson) and spatial correlation (Bivariate Moran’s I) between pairs of statistically significant covariates for districts in Ghana

From: Geo-visual integration of health outcomes and risk factors using excess risk and conditioned choropleth maps: a case study of malaria incidence and sociodemographic determinants in Ghana

Pairwise risk factors #Non-spatial Pearson's correlation Spatial Bivariate correlation
r p-value Moran's I p-value
Basic edu-Intermigration 0.001 0.992 0.032 0.064
Basic edu-Intramigration -0.039 0.610 -0.003 0.373
Basic edu-Urban 0.969** 0.000 0.113* 0.023
Basic edu-Emp.-to-pop. ratio 0.925** 0.000 0.145* 0.018
Basic edu-No/other religion 0.861** 0.000 0.094* 0.025
Basic edu-Agric household -0.014 0.854 0.013 0.198
Intermigration-Urban -0.028 0.719 -0.008 0.404
Intermigration- Intramigration 0.612** 0.000 0.028 0.062
Intermigration-Emp.-to-pop. ratio -0.011 0.888 -0.0005 0.240
Intermigration-No/other religion -0.046 0.552 -0.046* 0.043
Intermigration-Agric household 0.867** 0.000 0.030* 0.047
Intramigration-Urban -0.052 0.497 -0.0209 0.288
Intramigration-Emp.-to-pop. ratio -0.040 0.607 -0.015 0.418
Intramigration-No/other religion -0.084 0.275 -0.069* 0.007
Intramigration-Agric household 0.915** 0.000 0.115* 0.025
Urban-Emp.-to-pop. ratio 0.941** 0.000 0.145* 0.019
Urban-No/other religion 0.860** 0.000 0.098* 0.026
Urban-Agric household -0.050 0.521 -0.034 0.059
Emp.-to-pop. ratio- No/other rel. 0.835** 0.000 0.104* 0.022
Emp.-to-pop.ratio-Agric household -0.030 0.693 -0.015 0.388
No/other rel.-Agric household -0.075 0.331 -0.128* 0.001
  1. ** Non-spatial correlation is significant at p< 0.01 (2-tailed)
  2. *spatial correlation is significant at pseudo p < 0.05 for conditional 999 permutations
  3. # Spatial correlation is most appropriate but the spatial correlation was much smaller than the non-spatial correlation and the departure from independence is consistent but weak. The assumption of spatial independence may have affected the non-spatial correlation result