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Table 3 Multiple regression analysis of the proportion of levofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli in Japan, 2015–2016

From: Fluoroquinolone consumption and Escherichia coli resistance in Japan: an ecological study

Variable Proportion resistant in 2015 Proportion resistant in 2016
Partial regression coefficient SE t p value Partial regression coefficient SE t p value
Intercept constant −23.8 29.8 −0.80 0.43 −14.8 32.9 −0.45 0.66
Fluoroquinolone consumption (DID) 19.3 11.1 1.75 0.09 17.1 12.0 1.43 0.16
Number of physicians per 100,000 individuals 0.2 0.1 1.71 0.10 0.2 0.1 1.14 0.26
Number of nurses per 100,000 individuals −0.1< < 0.1 −0.39 0.70 − 0.1< < 0.1 − 0.37 0.71
Number of hospitals per 100,000 individuals 1.5 4.2 0.36 0.72 2.0 4.8 0.41 0.69
Number of clinics per 100,000 individuals < 0.1 0.1 0.06 0.96 < 0.1 0.1 0.35 0.73
Dummy variable (fluoroquinolone consumption [DID] × the number of physicians) −0.1 < 0.1 −1.49 0.14 −0.1 < 0.1 −1.08 0.29
  1. 2015: R2 = 0.34, F = 3.40, p < 0.01
  2. 2016: R2 = 0.31, F = 3.00, p = 0.02
  3. DID Defined daily dose per 1000 inhabitants per day, SE Standard error