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Table 4 Predictors of prevalence of depression among hemodialysis patients at final visit (n = 213)

From: Prevalence and predictors of depression among hemodialysis patients: a prospective follow-up study

Variables Prevalence of Depression (No. %) Univariate analysis OR (95% CI) P-value Multivariate analysis OR (95% CI) P-value
No Yes
Gender
 Female 13 (13.7) 82 (86.3) Referent    
 Male 19 (16.1) 99 (83.9) 0.826 (0.385–1.773) 0.624   
Age (years)
  < 40 2 (11.8) 15 (88.2) Referent    
 41–60 20 (15.6) 108 (84.4) 0.720 (0.153–3.394) 0.678   
  > 60 10 (14.7) 58 (85.3) 0.773 (0.153–3.911) 0.756   
BMI
 Underweight 4 (40) 6 (60) Referent   Referent  
 Normal 20 (13.9) 124 (86.1) 4.133 (1.071–15.951) 0.039 3.339 (0.833–13.376) 0.089
 Overweight 5 (11.1) 40 (88.9) 5.333 (1.110–25.636) 0.037 4.205 (0.834–21.187) 0.082
 Obese < 5 11 (78.6) 2.444 (0.405–14.748) 0.330 1.907 (0.300–12.123) 0.494
Socioeconomic Status
 Low 6 (15.8) 32 (84.2) Referent    
 Middle 20 (13.4) 129 (86.6) 1.209 (0.449–3.258) 0.707   
 High 6 (23.1) 20 (76.9) 0.625 (0.177–2.208) 0.465   
Marital Status
 Single 2 (11.1) 16 (88.9) Referent    
 Married 30 (15.4) 165 (84.6) 0.688 (0.150–3.145) 0.629   
Race
 Malay 32 (15.6) 173 (84.4) Non-computable    
 Others 8 (100)    
Smoking status
 Current Smoker 12 (16.4) 61 (83.6) Referent    
 Non-Smoker 20 (14.3) 120 (85.7) 1.180 (0.541–2.573) 0.677   
Alcohol
 Current drinker 2 (11.1) 16 (88.9) Referent    
 Non-drinker 30 (15.4) 165 (84.6) 0.688 (0.150–3.145) 0.629   
Drug Addiction
 Current Drug Addiction 5 (14.3) 30 (85.7) Referent    
 No Drug Addiction 27 (15.2) 151 (84.8) 0.932 (0.332–2.615) 0.894   
Employment
 Unemployed 17 (14.4) 101 (85.6) Referent    
 Employed 15 (15.8) 80 (84.2) 0.898 (0.422–1.908) 0.779   
Dialysis Years
 1 year 10 (16.9) 49 (83.1) Referent    
 2–4 years 13 (17.6) 61 (82.4) 0.958 (0.387–2.370) 0.925   
  > 5 years 9 (11.3) 71 (88.8) 1.610 (0.610–4.253) 0.337   
Hemodialysis Centers
 Private 13 (10.4) 112 (89.6) Referent   Referent  
 NGO 8 (25.8) 23 (74.2) 0.334 (0.124–0.897) 0.030 0.347 (0.127–0.949) 0.039
 Governmental 11 (19.3) 46 (80.7) 0.485 (0.203–1.162) 0.105 0.487 (0.196–1.205) 0.120
Vascular access
 Fistula 29 (14.6) 169 (85.4) Referent    
 Others 3 (20) 12 (80) 0.686 (0.182–2.583) 0.578   
Diabetes Mellitus
 No 9 (11.7) 68 (88.3) Referent    
 Yes 23 (16.9) 113 (83.1) 0.650 (0.284–1.487) 0.308   
Cardiovascular Diseases
 No 29 (16.2) 150 (83.8) Referent    
 Yes 3 (8.8) 31 (91.2) 1.998 (0.572–6.973) 0.278   
Gouty Arthritis
 No 30 (16.3) 154 (83.7) Referent   Referent  
 Yes 2 (6.9) 27 (93.1) 2.630 (0.594–11.653) 0.203 2.637 (0.577–12.056) 0.211
Other Comorbidities
 No 24 (16) 126 (84) Referent    
 Yes 8 (19) 55 (87.3) 1.310 (0.554–3.096) 0.539   
Type Therapy
 Mono-therapy 16 (13.8) 100 (86.2) Referent    
 Multi-therapy 16 (16.5) 81 (83.5) 0.810 (0.382–1.719) 0.583   
  1. Analysis: Univariate and Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis. All variables with p-value < 0.25 are included in the multivariate analysis
  2. Low socioeconomic status (≤ RM 2300 or 531 USD), Middle socioeconomic status (RM 2301–5600 or 531–1294 USD) and High socioeconomic status (> RM 5600 or 1294 USD)
  3. OR Odds ratio, CI confidence interval, BMI Body mass index, NGO Non-governmental organization
  4. Other comorbidities: Blood clots, depression, asthma, osteoarthritis, pregnancy losses/birth defects and osteoporosis