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Table 3 Predictors of prevalence of depression among hemodialysis patients at 2nd visit (n = 216)

From: Prevalence and predictors of depression among hemodialysis patients: a prospective follow-up study

Variables

Prevalence of Depression (No. %)

Univariate analysis OR (95% CI)

P-value

Multivariate analysis OR (95% CI)

P-value

No

Yes

Gender

 Female

17 (17.3)

81 (82.7)

Referent

   

 Male

30 (25.4)

88 (74.6)

0.676 (0.351–1.336)

0.245

0.699 (0.357–1.370)

0.297

Age (years)

  < 40

3 (17.6)

14 (82.4)

Referent

   

 41–60

28 (22)

99 (78)

0.758 (0.203–2.824)

0.679

  

  > 60

16 (22.2)

56 (77.8)

0.750 (0.192–2.937)

0.680

  

BMI

 Underweight

4 (33.3)

8 (66.7)

Referent

   

 Normal

28 (19.2)

118 (80.8)

2.107 (0.592–7.496)

0.250

  

 Overweight

10 (22.2)

35 (77.8)

1.750 (0.436–7.032)

0.430

  

 Obese

5 (38.5)

8 (61.5)

0.800 (0.155–4.123)

0.790

  

Socioeconomic Status

 Low

10 (25.6)

29 (74.4)

Referent

   

 Middle

29 (19.1)

123 (80.9)

1.463 (0.641–3.337)

0.366

  

 High

8 (32)

17 (68)

0.733 (0.243–2.214)

0.582

  

Marital Status

 Single

3 (16.7)

15 (83.3)

Referent

   

 Married

44 (22.2)

154 (77.8)

0.700 (0.194–2.528)

0.586

  

Race

 Malay

47 (22.6)

161 (77.4)

Non-computable

   

 Others

8 (100)

 

  

Smoking status

 Current Smoker

15 (21.1)

56 (78.9)

Referent

   

 Non-Smoker

32 (22.1)

113 (77.9)

0.946 (0.474–1.889)

0.875

  

Alcohol

 Current drinker

4 (23.5)

13 (76.5)

Referent

   

 Non-drinker

43 (21.6)

156 (78.4)

1.116 (0.346–3.598)

0.854

  

Drug Addiction

 Current Drug Addiction

7 (20.6)

27 (79.4)

Referent

   

 No Drug Addiction

40 (22)

142 (78)

0.920 (0.373–2.269)

0.857

  

Employment

 Unemployed

23 (19.7)

94 (80.3)

Referent

   

 Employed

24 (24.2)

75 (75.8)

0.765 (0.400–1.461)

0.417

  

Dialysis Years

 1 year

15 (24.6)

46 (75.4)

Referent

   

 2–4 years

18 (23.7)

58 (76.3)

1.051 (0.478–2.308)

0.902

  

  > 5 years

14 (17.7)

65 (82.3)

1.514 (0.667–3.439)

0.322

  

Hemodialysis Centers

 Private

23 (18.4)

102 (81.6)

Referent

 

Referent

 

 NGO

10 (30.3)

23 (69.7)

0.519 (0.217–1.237)

0.139

0.580 (0.238–1.412)

0.580

 Governmental

14 (24.1)

44 (75.9)

0.709 (0.334–1.504)

0.370

0.646 (0.295–1.417)

0.276

Vascular access

 Fistula

44 (22)

156 (78)

Referent

   

 Others

3 (18.8)

13 (81.3)

1.222 (0.333–4.481)

0.762

  

Diabetes Mellitus

 No

14 (17.3)

67 (82.7)

Referent

 

Referent

 

 Yes

33 (24.4)

102 (75.6)

0.646 (0.322–1.297)

0.219

0.688 (0.335–1.413)

0.309

Cardiovascular Diseases

 No

40 (22)

142 (78)

Referent

   

 Yes

7 (20.6)

27 (79.4)

1.087 (0.441–2.679)

0.857

  

Gouty Arthritis

 No

43 (22.9)

145 (77.1)

Referent

   

 Yes

4 (14.3)

24 (85.7)

1.779 (0.585–5.409)

0.310

  

Other Comorbidities

 No

35 (22.9)

118 (77.1)

Referent

   

 Yes

12 (19)

51 (81)

1.261 (0.605–2.625)

0.536

  

Type Therapy

 Mono-therapy

22 (18.5)

97 (81.5)

Referent

 

Referent

 

 Multi-therapy

25 (25.8)

72 (74.2)

0.653 (0.341–1.250)

0.198

0.628 (0.319–1.237)

0.178

  1. Analysis: Univariate and Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis. All variables with p-value < 0.25 are included in the multivariate analysis
  2. Low socioeconomic status (≤ RM 2300 or 531 USD), Middle socioeconomic status (RM 2301–5600 or 531–1294 USD) and High socioeconomic status (> RM 5600 or 1294 USD)
  3. OR Odds ratio, CI confidence interval, BMI Body mass index, NGO Non-governmental organization
  4. Other comorbidities: Blood clots, depression, asthma, osteoarthritis, pregnancy losses/birth defects and osteoporosis