Skip to main content

Table 3 Predictors of prevalence of depression among hemodialysis patients at 2nd visit (n = 216)

From: Prevalence and predictors of depression among hemodialysis patients: a prospective follow-up study

Variables Prevalence of Depression (No. %) Univariate analysis OR (95% CI) P-value Multivariate analysis OR (95% CI) P-value
No Yes
Gender
 Female 17 (17.3) 81 (82.7) Referent    
 Male 30 (25.4) 88 (74.6) 0.676 (0.351–1.336) 0.245 0.699 (0.357–1.370) 0.297
Age (years)
  < 40 3 (17.6) 14 (82.4) Referent    
 41–60 28 (22) 99 (78) 0.758 (0.203–2.824) 0.679   
  > 60 16 (22.2) 56 (77.8) 0.750 (0.192–2.937) 0.680   
BMI
 Underweight 4 (33.3) 8 (66.7) Referent    
 Normal 28 (19.2) 118 (80.8) 2.107 (0.592–7.496) 0.250   
 Overweight 10 (22.2) 35 (77.8) 1.750 (0.436–7.032) 0.430   
 Obese 5 (38.5) 8 (61.5) 0.800 (0.155–4.123) 0.790   
Socioeconomic Status
 Low 10 (25.6) 29 (74.4) Referent    
 Middle 29 (19.1) 123 (80.9) 1.463 (0.641–3.337) 0.366   
 High 8 (32) 17 (68) 0.733 (0.243–2.214) 0.582   
Marital Status
 Single 3 (16.7) 15 (83.3) Referent    
 Married 44 (22.2) 154 (77.8) 0.700 (0.194–2.528) 0.586   
Race
 Malay 47 (22.6) 161 (77.4) Non-computable    
 Others 8 (100)    
Smoking status
 Current Smoker 15 (21.1) 56 (78.9) Referent    
 Non-Smoker 32 (22.1) 113 (77.9) 0.946 (0.474–1.889) 0.875   
Alcohol
 Current drinker 4 (23.5) 13 (76.5) Referent    
 Non-drinker 43 (21.6) 156 (78.4) 1.116 (0.346–3.598) 0.854   
Drug Addiction
 Current Drug Addiction 7 (20.6) 27 (79.4) Referent    
 No Drug Addiction 40 (22) 142 (78) 0.920 (0.373–2.269) 0.857   
Employment
 Unemployed 23 (19.7) 94 (80.3) Referent    
 Employed 24 (24.2) 75 (75.8) 0.765 (0.400–1.461) 0.417   
Dialysis Years
 1 year 15 (24.6) 46 (75.4) Referent    
 2–4 years 18 (23.7) 58 (76.3) 1.051 (0.478–2.308) 0.902   
  > 5 years 14 (17.7) 65 (82.3) 1.514 (0.667–3.439) 0.322   
Hemodialysis Centers
 Private 23 (18.4) 102 (81.6) Referent   Referent  
 NGO 10 (30.3) 23 (69.7) 0.519 (0.217–1.237) 0.139 0.580 (0.238–1.412) 0.580
 Governmental 14 (24.1) 44 (75.9) 0.709 (0.334–1.504) 0.370 0.646 (0.295–1.417) 0.276
Vascular access
 Fistula 44 (22) 156 (78) Referent    
 Others 3 (18.8) 13 (81.3) 1.222 (0.333–4.481) 0.762   
Diabetes Mellitus
 No 14 (17.3) 67 (82.7) Referent   Referent  
 Yes 33 (24.4) 102 (75.6) 0.646 (0.322–1.297) 0.219 0.688 (0.335–1.413) 0.309
Cardiovascular Diseases
 No 40 (22) 142 (78) Referent    
 Yes 7 (20.6) 27 (79.4) 1.087 (0.441–2.679) 0.857   
Gouty Arthritis
 No 43 (22.9) 145 (77.1) Referent    
 Yes 4 (14.3) 24 (85.7) 1.779 (0.585–5.409) 0.310   
Other Comorbidities
 No 35 (22.9) 118 (77.1) Referent    
 Yes 12 (19) 51 (81) 1.261 (0.605–2.625) 0.536   
Type Therapy
 Mono-therapy 22 (18.5) 97 (81.5) Referent   Referent  
 Multi-therapy 25 (25.8) 72 (74.2) 0.653 (0.341–1.250) 0.198 0.628 (0.319–1.237) 0.178
  1. Analysis: Univariate and Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis. All variables with p-value < 0.25 are included in the multivariate analysis
  2. Low socioeconomic status (≤ RM 2300 or 531 USD), Middle socioeconomic status (RM 2301–5600 or 531–1294 USD) and High socioeconomic status (> RM 5600 or 1294 USD)
  3. OR Odds ratio, CI confidence interval, BMI Body mass index, NGO Non-governmental organization
  4. Other comorbidities: Blood clots, depression, asthma, osteoarthritis, pregnancy losses/birth defects and osteoporosis