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Table 2 Predictors of prevalence of depression among hemodialysis patients at baseline visit (n = 220)

From: Prevalence and predictors of depression among hemodialysis patients: a prospective follow-up study

Variables Prevalence of Depression (No. %) Univariate analysis OR (95% CI) P-value Multivariate analysis OR (95% CI) P-value
No Yes
Gender
 Female 23 (23.4) 75 (76.6) Referent   Referent  
 Male 40 (32.8) 82 (67.2) 0.690 (0.380–1.254) 0.224 0.742 (0.399–1.383) 0.348
Age (years)
  < 40 4 (23.5) 13 (76.5) Referent    
 41–60 40 (30.8) 90 (69.2) 0.692 (0.213–2.255) 0.542   
  > 60 19 (26) 54 (74) 0.874 (0.254–3.012) 0.832   
BMI
 Underweight 4 (33.3) 8 (66.7) Referent    
 Normal 41 (27.7) 107 (72.3) 1.305 (0.373–4.568) 0.677   
 Overweight 11 (23.9) 35 (76.1) 1.591 (0.401–6.313) 0.509   
 Obese 7 (50) 7 (50) 0.500 (0.102–2.460) 0.394   
Socioeconomic Status
 Low 13 (33.3) 26 (66.7) Referent   Referent  
 Middle 37 (23.9) 118 (76.1) 1.595 (0.745–3.414) 0.230 1.826 (0.816–4.086) 0.143
 High 13 (50) 13 (50) 0.500 (0.181–1.382) 0.182 0.570 (0.194–1.677) 0.307
Marital Status
 Single 4 (22.2) 14 (77.8) Referent    
 Married 59 (29.2) 143 (70.8) 0.692 (0.219–2.191) 0.532   
Race
 Malay 62 (29.2) 150 (70.8) Referent    
 Others 1 (12.5) 7 (87.5) 2.893 (0.349–24.011) 0.325   
Smoking status
 Current Smoker 21 (28.8) 52 (71.2) Referent    
 Non-Smoker 42 (28.6) 105 (71.4) 1.010 (0.543–1.877) 0.976   
Alcohol
 Current drinker 6 (33.3) 12 (66.7) Referent    
 Non-drinker 57 (28.2) 145 (71.8) 1.272 (0.456–3.551) 0.646   
Drug Addiction
 Current Drug Addiction 8 (22.9) 27 (77.1) Referent    
 No Drug Addiction 55 (29.7) 130 (70.3) 0.700 (0.299–1.638) 0.411   
Employment
 Unemployed 32 (26.7) 88 (73.3) Referent    
 Employed 31 (31) 69 (69) 0.809 (0.451–1.454) 0.479   
Dialysis Years
 1 year 23 (37.1) 39 (62.9) Referent    
 2–4 years 21 (26.9) 57 (73.1) 1.601 (0.781–3.283) 0.299   
  > 5 years 19 (23.8) 61 (76.3) 1.893 (0.914–3.923) 0.686   
Hemodialysis Centers
 Private 29 (22.5) 100 (77.5) Referent   Referent  
 NGO 12 (36.4) 21 (63.6) 0.508 (0.223–1.153) 0.105 0.413 (0.173–0.985) 0.046
 Governmental 22 (37.9) 36 (62.1) 0.475 (0.242–0.930) 0.030 0.522 (0.248–1.100) 0.087
Vascular access
 Fistula 59 (28.9) 145 (71.1) Referent    
 Others 4 (25) 12 (75) 1.221 (0.378–3.938) 0.739   
Diabetes Mellitus
 No 23 (28.4) 58 (71.6) Referent 0.952   
 Yes 40 (28.8) 99 (71.2) 0.981 (0.535–1.800)    
Cardiovascular Diseases
 No 55 (29.7) 130 (70.3) Referent    
 Yes 8 (22.9) 27 (77.1) 1.428 (0.611–3.339) 0.411   
Gouty Arthritis
 No 56 (29.3) 135 (70.7) Referent    
 Yes 7 (24.1) 22 (75.9) 1.304 (0.527–3.225) 0.566   
Other Comorbidities
 No 44 (28.2) 112 (71.8) Referent    
 Yes 19 (29.7) 45 (70.3) 0.930 (0.491–1.764) 0.825   
Type Therapy
 Mono-therapy 30 (24.8) 91 (75.2) Referent   Referent  
 Multi-therapy 33 (33.3) 66 (66.7) 0.659 (0.366–1.186) 0.164 0.553 (0.293–1.043) 0.067
  1. Analysis: Univariate and Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis. All variables with p-value < 0.25 are included in the multivariate analysis
  2. Low socioeconomic status (≤ RM 2300 or 531 USD), Middle socioeconomic status (RM 2301–5600 or 531–1294 USD) and High socioeconomic status (> RM 5600 or 1294 USD)
  3. OR Odds ratio, CI confidence interval, BMI Body mass index, NGO Non-governmental organization
  4. Other comorbidities: Blood clots, depression, asthma, osteoarthritis, pregnancy losses/birth defects and osteoporosis