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Table 2 Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for non-problematic heavy drinking compared with non-to-moderate drinking

From: Associations of education and income with heavy drinking and problem drinking among men: evidence from a population-based study in Japan

  Model 1a Model 1b Model 2 Model 3
OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Educational attainment
 University or higher 1.00   1.00 1.00
 College 1.55 (1.03–2.32)   1.76 (1.16–2.68) 1.79 (1.17–2.72)
 High school or lower 1.55 (1.06–2.27)   1.73 (1.17–2.57) 1.80 (1.21–2.67)
Equivalent income
 3rd tertile (highest)   1.00 1.00 1.00
 2nd tertile   0.86 (0.58–1.28) 0.75 (0.50–1.12) 0.77 (0.52–1.16)
 1st tertile (lowest)   0.73 (0.50–1.08) 0.63 (0.42–0.96) 0.66 (0.43–1.00)
Covariates
Age 1.11 (1.08–1.13) 1.10 (1.07–1.13) 1.09 (1.06–1.12) 1.09 (1.06–1.12)
Marital status
 Married/common-law    1.00 1.00
 Others    0.75 (0.50–1.13) 0.80 (0.53–1.22)
Working status
 Working    1.00 1.00
 Not working    0.62 (0.24–1.63) 0.74 (0.28–1.96)
Self-rated health
 Good     1.00
 Poor     0.82 (0.43–1.56)
Psychological distress
 No     1.00
 Yes     0.61 (0.41–0.90)
  1. Non-to-moderate drinking: < 46 g/day of ethanol intake; Non-problematic heavy drinking: ≥46 g/day of ethanol intake and CAGE score of 0 or 1
  2. Model 1a, 1b: adjusted for age
  3. Model 2: model 1 + adjusted for marital status, working status, and equivalent income/educational attainment
  4. Model 3: model 2 + adjusted for self-rated health and psychological distress