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Table 1 Characteristics of participants: the Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood (J-SHINE)

From: Associations of education and income with heavy drinking and problem drinking among men: evidence from a population-based study in Japan

  Total (N = 1921) Drinking patterns P-valuea
Non-to-moderate drinking (n = 1621) Non-problematic heavy drinking (n = 171) Problem drinking(n = 129)
Educational attainment, n (%)          < 0.001
 University or higher 1041 (54.2) 910 (56.1) 78 (45.6) 53 (41.1)  
 College 419 (21.8) 348 (21.5) 42 (24.6) 29 (22.5)  
 High school or lower 461 (24.0) 363 (22.4) 51 (29.8) 47 (36.4)  
Equivalent incomeb, mean (SD) 3839.8 (2142.8) 3781.4 (2112.9) 4306.1 (2167.2) 3956.5 (2405.7) 0.008
Age, mean (SD) 37.3 (7.2) 36.7 (7.1) 41.3 (6.3) 39.6 (7.4) < 0.001
Married/common-law, n (%) 1276 (66.4) 1041 (64.2) 135 (79.0) 100 (77.5) < 0.001
Working, n (%) 1788 (93.1) 1498 (92.4) 166 (97.1) 124 (96.1) 0.027
Poor self-rated health, n (%) 203 (10.6) 168 (10.4) 12 (7.0) 23 (17.8) 0.008
Psychological distress, n (%) 705 (36.7) 600 (37.0) 39 (22.8) 66 (51.2) < 0.001
  1. Non-to-moderate drinking: < 46 g/day of ethanol intake; Non-problematic heavy drinking: ≥46 g/day of ethanol intake and CAGE score of 0 or 1; Problem drinking: ≥46 g/day of ethanol intake and CAGE score of 2–4
  2. aObtained using analysis of variance for continuous variables and the chi-square test for categorical variables, comparing drinking patterns
  3. bThousand Japanese yen (/year)