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Table 2 Anti-HCV prevalence by demographic and exposure subgroup in unadjusted and adjusted models, Georgia HCV serosurvey, 2015

From: Hepatitis C prevalence and risk factors in Georgia, 2015: setting a baseline for elimination

Characteristic   Anti-HCV Prevalence Unadjusted Models Final Adjusted Model
Total n n Weighted % (95% CI) Crude OR (95% CI) p-value Adjusted OR (95% CI) p-value
Demographics        
 Sex
  Female 3671 145 3.8 (3.0, 4.9) 1    
  Male 2339 288 12.1 (10.2, 14.3) 3.5 (2.5, 4.8) < 0.0001   
  Missing 0       
 Age
  18–29 1063 23 2.4 (1.5, 4.0) 1    
  30–39 1140 94 8.8 (6.8, 11.3) 3.9 (2.2, 6.8) < 0.0001   
  40–49 1026 128 14.0 (11.1, 17.6) 6.5 (3.9, 11.1) < 0.0001   
  50–59 1096 79 7.0 (5.2, 9.5) 3.0 (1.6, 5.8) 0.0006   
  60+ 1681 109 6.7 (5.0, 9.0) 2.9 (1.6, 5.4) 0.0007   
  Missing 4       
 Geography
  Urban 3155 290 9.5 (8.0, 11.4) 1.8 (1.4, 2.5) < 0.0001   
  Rural 2855 143 5.4 (4.4, 6.6) 1    
  Missing 0       
 Employment Status
  Employed/student/ 4939 286 5.9 (5.0, 7.1) 1    
  homemaker/unpaid
  worker/retired    
  Unemployed* 1065 147 15.0 (12.3, 18.1) 2.8 (2.1, 3.7) < 0.0001   
  Missing 6       
Exposures        
 Ever injected drugs
  Yes 205 150 66.5 (56.0, 75.6) 37.6 (23.5, 60.0) < 0.0001 21.4 (12.3, 37.4) < 0.0001
  No 5762 283 5.0 (4.3, 5.9) 1    
  Missing 43       
 Ever incarcerated
  Yes 236 98 42.0 (32.8, 51.7) 11.3 (7.5, 17.1) < 0.0001   
  No 5757 335 6.0 (5.1, 7.0) 1    
  Missing 17       
 Have any tattoos
  Yes 626 104 16.2 (12.2, 21.1) 2.8 (1.9, 4.0) < 0.0001   
  No 5372 329 6.5 (5.5, 7.6) 1    
  Missing 12       
 Number of medical injections in last 6 months
  0 3656 233 6.7 (5.6, 7.9) 1    
  1 541 40 6.6 (4.3, 10.2) 0.99 (0.60, 1.65) 0.98   
  > 1 1648 144 9.5 (7.5, 12.1) 1.48 (1.10, 1.99) 0.01   
 Missing 165       
 Ever received a blood transfusion
  Yes 447 69 21.4 (15.6, 28.5) 3.8 (2.6, 5.5) < 0.0001 4.5 (2.8, 7.2) < 0.0001
  No 5554 364 6.7 (5.8, 7.7) 1    
  Missing 9       
 Received a blood transfusion before or after 1997
  Before 1997 225 36 25.3 (16.2, 37.3) 1.6 (0.7, 3.7) 0.27   
  In or after 1997 222 33 17.4 (10.7, 27.1) 1    
 Ever received kidney dialysis
  Yes 17 3 27.6 (7.9, 62.9) 4.6 (1.0, 20.4) 0.04   
  No 5972 430 7.7 (6.7, 8.8) 1    
  Missing 21       
 Frequency of dental cleanings
  Twice/year 193 15 15.0 (8.1, 26.2) 2.1 (1.1, 4.4) 0.04   
  Once/year 478 27 6.7 (3.9, 11.5) 0.9 (0.5, 1.6) 0.66   
  Less than once/year 1108 84 6.9 (5.0, 9.4) 0.9 (0.6, 1.3) 0.58   
  Never 4173 304 7.6 (6.5, 8.8) 1    
  Missing 58       
 Number of lifetime sexual partners
  0–2 4020 157 3.8 (3.0, 4.7) 1    
  > 2 991 129 11.9 (9.1, 15.4) 3.4 (2.4, 5.0) < 0.0001   
  Missing 999       
  1. Note: Anti-HCV related analyses include only participants who submitted both questionnaire data and a usable blood specimen (n = 6010)
  2. *Unemployed includes those able or unable to work