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Table 4 Risk factors for severe disease among hospitalized patients enrolled in VICo respiratory syndrome surveillance, 2008–2012 (N = 446)

From: Hospitalization and death among patients with influenza, Guatemala, 2008–2012

Characteristics Severe Diseasea(n = 88) Less Severe (n = 358) Bivariate OR (95% CI) MultivariatebOR (95%)
Age Group
 0–2 43 (21.0) 162 (79.0) 1  
 2–5 16 (28.6) 40 (71.4) 1.5 (0.8–2.9)  
 5–15 10 (29.4) 24 (70.6) 1.6 (0.7–3.5)  
 15–50 8 (11.3) 63 (88.7) 0.5 (0.2–1.1)  
 50–65 6 (16.7) 30 (83.3) 0.8 (0.3–1.9)  
 65+ 5 (11.4) 39 (88.6) 0.5 (0.2–1.3)  
Sex
 Male 48 (18.9) 206 (81.1) 1  
 Female 40 (20.8) 152 (79.2) 1.1 (0.7–1.8)  
Site
 Guatemala City 3 (5.0) 57 (95.0) 1 1
 Santa Rosa 32 (19.8) 130 (80.2) 4.7 (1.4–15.0) 9.5 (1.8–50.2)
 Quetzaltenango 53 (23.7) 171 (76.3) 5.9 (1.8–19.6) 5.2 (0.9–29.7)
Ethnicity
 Latino 46 (16.7) 229 (83.3) 1 1
 Indigenous 42 (26.8) 115 (73.2) 1.8 (1.1–2.9) 4.3 (1.5–12.5)
Existing Chronic Disease
 No 19 (18.8) 82 (81.2) 1  
 Yes 67 (20.2) 264 (79.8) 0.9 (0.5–1.6)  
Pneumonia on Chest –X-ray (n = 239)
 No 19 (12.8) 129 (87.2) 1 1
 Yes 33 (36.3) 58 (63.7) 3.9 (2.0–7.4) 5.2 (2.5–11.0)
Antiviral treatment received (n = 268)
 No 1 (16.7) 5 (83.3) 1  
 Yes 50 (19.1) 212 (80.9) 1.2 (0.1–10.3)  
Type of flu
 A 74 (20.6) 286 (79.4) 1  
 B 12 (14.6) 70 (85.4) 0.7 (0.3–1.3)  
 A and B 2 (50.0) 2 (50.0) 3.9 (0.5–27.9)  
Household Size
 1–4 21 (14.2) 127 (85.8) 1  
 5–6 35 (20.4) 137 (79.7) 1.5 (0.9–2.8)  
 7+ 32 (28.6) 80 (71.4) 2.4 (1.3–4.5)  
Sought care before hospitalization
 No 24 (13.3) 157 (86.7) 1  
 Yes 62 (25.7) 179 (74.3) 2.3 (1.4–3.8)  
  1. a Defined as requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission or death
  2. bAdjusted for age, sex, and other variables in final model