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Table 2 Clinical characteristics at admission of hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza infection in the VICo Respiratory Syndrome Surveillance System, 2008–2012

From: Hospitalization and death among patients with influenza, Guatemala, 2008–2012

Characteristics Guatemala City n = 60 Quetzaltenango (Xela) n = 224 Santa Rosa (Cuilapa) n = 162 Total n = 446 Chi-square p-value
Fever started less than 7 days ago 28 (47) 153 (69) 104 (65) 285 (64) 0.01
Abnormality during lung examination 56 (93) 200 (90) 107 (73) 363 (85) < 0.01
Tachypnea (fast breathing) 24 (40) 143 (64) 72 (44) 239 (54) < 0.01
Diarrhea/Loose stool past 7 days 10 (17) 47 (21) 19 (12) 76 (17) 0.06
Cough 54 (90) 215 (96) 153 (96) 422 (95) 0.09
Sputum or phlegm 45 (75) 180 (81) 93 (58) 318 (72) < 0.01
Sputum with blood 1 (2) 25 (11) 5 (3) 31 (7) 0.01
Any existing chronic condition 10 (17) 70 (31) 21 (14) 101 (23) < 0.01
Heart Disease 4 (7) 21 (9) 1 (0.6) 26 (6) < 0.01
X-ray results (n = 210)
 Alveolar consolidation/Pleural effusion 12 (34) 54 (54) 25 (31) 91 (43) 0.004
 Other infiltrate/Abnormality 11 (31) 26 (26) 20 (25) 57 (27)  
 None 10 (29) 19 (19) 33 (41) 62 (29)  
End-point Pneumonia (n = 239) 30 (71) 54 (50) 64 (72) 148 (62) 0.003
“Danger signs” in Children Under 5 (n = 261)
 Vomiting everything 12 (21) 38 (34) 20 (21) 70 (27) 0.22
 Able to drink or breastfeed 24 (43) 58 (52) 37 (39) 119 (46) 0.06
 Convulsions or attacks 5 (9) 10 (9) 13 (14) 28 (11) 0.03
 Increased tendency to sleep 26 (46) 42 (38) 13 (14) 81 (31) < 0.01
Immunization data
 Had vaccination card 40 (71) 63 (57) 40 (43) 143 (55) 0.004
Received influenza vaccine past 6 months (n = 261)
 Yes 0 3 (1) 1 (1) 4 (1)  
 Missing 2 (3) 68 (30) 80 (49) 150 (3)  
Received pentavalent vaccinea (n = 261) 40 (71) 82 (80) 56 (70) 178 (74) 0.62
Number of pentavalent dosesa (n = 261)
 1 5 (9) 16 (14) 8 (9) 29 (11) 0.30
 2 6 (11) 11 (10) 12 (13) 29 (11)  
 3 29 (52) 55 (50) 36 (14) 120 (46)  
 Missing 16 (29) 28 (25) 38 (40) 82 (31)  
Received DPT (n = 261)
 Yes 2 (4) 0 (0) 5 (5) 7 (3) 0.04
 Missing 41 (73) 91 (82) 62 (66) 194 (74)  
  1. a Pentavalent vaccine contains Hemophilus influenza B, Diphtheria, Pertussis (whole cell), Tetanus (DPT), and Hepatitis B are administered at 2, 4, and 6 months beginning in 2006. DPTis given at 18 months and 4 years